1. Family: Aristolochiaceae Juss.
    1. Aristolochia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FTEA]

    Aristolochiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1986

    Habit
    Erect, twining or scrambling perennial herbs or shrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves entire or mostly 3–7-lobed, usually cordate, 3–7-nerved, sometimes with an undeveloped axillary stipule-like leaf
    Flowers
    Flowers irregular, solitary or in fascicles, axillary, with coloured perianth, adnate to ovary below, elongate tubular, variously bent, usually inflated at base around the style, hairy inside, narrowed at the throat; limb open or recurved, entire or 3–6-lobed
    Stamens
    Stamens usually 6 or more, the anthers sessile in a row adnate to the style or dorsal side of the stigma
    Pistil
    Ovary inferior, usually 6-locular; style short, 3–6-lobed at apex
    Fruits
    Capsule septicidally dehiscent, with 6 valves or splitting through the placentas
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed, mostly winged all round or thick with an elaiosome.
    [FZ]

    Aristolochiaceae, B.L. Stannard. Flora Zambesiaca 9:2. 1997

    Habit
    Perennial herbs or shrubs, erect, scrambling or climbing, often with a fetid smell.
    Leaves
    Leaves entire or 3–7-lobed, usually cordate, 3–7-nerved, sometimes with an axillary stipule-like leaf.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually zygomorphic, solitary, fasciculate or in racemose inflorescences, sometimes very large.
    Perianth
    Perianth coloured, tubular; the tube constricted briefly above its attachment to the ovary apex, then abruptly inflated into a subglobose or oblong–ellipsoid utricle, cylindrical or funnel-shaped above the utricle and straight or variously bent, expanding into a very variable, sometimes unilateral, entire or 3–6-lobed limb.
    Stamens
    Stamens usually 6, rarely more; anthers sessile, adnate to the stylar column.
    Pistil
    Ovary inferior, usually merging imperceptibly into the pedicel, usually 6-locular; style with 3–6 stigmatic lobes.
    Fruits
    Fruits capsular, 6-valved, dehiscing septicidally.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, usually with a peripheral wing, often ± covered on one side by the thickened raphe.
    [FTEA]

    Aristolochiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1986

    Habit
    Climbing woody shrubs with mostly little-branched stems sometimes extending up to 30 m. or more
    Leaves
    Leaves entire or 3-lobed, rounded, cuneate or cordate at the base; pseudostipules absent
    Flowers
    Flowers often large, mostly borne on the old wood but in 1 or 2 species sometimes a few on leafy shoots
    Calyx
    Calyx mostly obliquely tubular, the base inflated-globose, pouched, slightly or gradually widened upwards; limb regularly 3-lobed or irregularly lobed with 2 lobes longer than the third or with 1–3 long tails on one side of the mouth
    Anthers
    Anthers 6–24 (often 9)
    Stigma
    Stigmatic lobes 6–12 (often 9); ovary elongate, 6-locular
    Fruits
    Fruit elongate, woody, cucumber-like, indehiscent, strong-ly 6-ribbed, ± striate transversely
    Seeds
    Seeds triangular, flattened, arranged in line in each locule.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, French Guiana, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Maryland, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Samoa, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Christmas I., Cook Is., Galápagos, Gambia, Great Britain, KwaZulu-Natal, Masachusettes, Mauritius, New Caledonia, Northern Provinces, Norway, Québec, Réunion, Tonga, Uzbekistan, Venezuelan Antilles

    Aristolochia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    58822.000
    Lankester, C.H. [s.n.], Brazil K001106544
    Harley, R.M. [19867], Brazil K001106541
    Lamb, A. [ALFB 117/87], Borneo 60201.000
    Lewis, G.P. [817], Brazil 46421.000
    Banziger, H. [433], Thailand 29047.684
    Milliken, W. [1981], Brazil 59728.000
    Ollerton, J. [137], Guyana 76077.000
    Oliveira, M. [158], Brazil K001106540
    Heringer, E.P. [2615], Brazil K001106545
    Bolland, G. [35], Brazil K001106542
    Usteri, P.A. [300B], Brazil K001106543
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 9108] K001132227
    Finlayson, G. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132520
    Harris, D.J. [2340], Central African Republic Pararistolochia 63047.000
    Etuge, M. [4214], Cameroon Pararistolochia 61686.000
    Etuge, M. [1726], Cameroon Pararistolochia 71438.000
    Groves, M. [127], Cameroon Pararistolochia 61674.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 960 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 135.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • H. Huber in Kubitzki et al., Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 2: 129 (1993).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 410 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 960 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Tax. Rev. Pentandrous Species Aristolochia, Connecticut (1970)
    • Pfeifer in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 115–196 (1966)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 410 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 960 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0