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  1. Family: Cyperaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Cyperus L.
      1. Cyperus longus L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Europe to Indian Subcontinent.

    [FTEA]

    Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

    Type
    Type: Southern Europe, “habitat in Italiae, Galliae paludibus”, lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen No. 909.89–686 (L, lecto., chosen by Kukkonen in Cafferty & Jarvis (ed.), Taxon 53: 179 (2004) )
    Habit
    Perennial, fairly robust, up to 100 cm tall, with rather thick horizontal, often curved, scale-covered stolons and only slightly swollen culm bases.
    Culms
    Culms few, 25–95 cm long, 1.9–4 mm wide, trigonous above, terete below, glabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves few, withering early, up to 50 cm long. Leaf sheath pale to dark reddish-brown, 3–10 cm long. Leaf blade flat, 16–40 cm long, 3–5 mm wide, slightly scabrid on margin and primary vein, apex acuminate
    Bracts
    Involucral bracts leaf-like, erect to spreading, 3–5, lowermost 6–28 cm long, 2–5.4 mm wide
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a simple to compound anthela, primary branches 4–8, 0.5–10 cm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets in almost digitate spikes, sessile and at the end of primary branches, 3–15 spikelets per spike, linear-lanceolate, 8–25 mm long, 1.2–2 mm wide, rachilla straight.
    Glume
    Glumes reddish brown with narrow uncoloured margin, ovate, 2.7–3.5 mm long, 1.4–1.7 mm wide, keel green, apex obtuse
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Filaments
    Filaments 2.9–3.8 mm long.
    Anthers
    Anthers 1.4–2.2 mm long
    Fruits
    Nutlet brown, ellipsoid, trigonous, 1.4–1.6 mm long, 0.5–0.75 mm wide, almost smooth.
    Ecology
    Lake edges, black cotton soils, ditches, periodically flooded depressions in grassland or bushland, in swamps and temporary pools; sea-level to 1600 m
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC)
    Note
    Haines & Lye state this differs from C. rotundus only in the faintly swollen stem base and somewhat shorter glumes. Very polymorphic.
    Distribution
    Range: Widespread in Africa; S Europe Flora districts: U1 U2 K1 K2 K4 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Corse, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madeira, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Socotra, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tanzania, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia

    Extinct in:

    Germany

    Introduced into:

    Tristan da Cunha, Western Australia

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    English
    Sweet cyperus, Water rush

    Other Data

    Cyperus longus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    de Heldreich [s.n.], Turkey K000950351
    de Heldreich [s.n.], Turkey K000950352
    de Heldreich [s.n.], Turkey K000950353
    Sitensis, P. [872], Cyprus K000950354
    Sitensis, P. [872], Cyprus K000950355
    Kotschy, T. [771], Cyprus K000950356

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Jermy, C., Simpson, D., Foley, M. & Porter, M. (2007). Sedges of the British Isles. B.S.B.I. Handbook No. 1, ed. 3: 1-554. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London.
    • Govaerts, R. & Simpson, D.A. (2007). World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Sedges: 1-765. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2006). A contribution to the flora of Wadi Abdur (Dhofar, Soutern Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 61: 253-260.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2006). A contribution to the flora of Wadi Abdur (Dhofar, Soutern Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 61: 253-260.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 6: 450, fig. 212.88 (1997).
    • Fl. Somalia 4: 121 (1995)
    • Haines & Lye, Sedges & Rushes E. Afr.: 189, fig. 369 (1983)
    • E.P. 4, 20 (101): 97 (1936)
    • F.T.A. 8: 366 (1902)
    • Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/