1. Family: Aspleniaceae Newman
    1. Thelypteris Schmidel

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FTEA]

    Thelypteridaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Rhizomes
    Rhizome slender, long-creeping, branched, always in very wet ground, with thin broad glabrous scales.
    Leaf lamina
    Lamina simply pinnate with deeply pinnatifid pinnae, the basal ones not or little reduced; veins all free, often forked, running to the margin
    Leaves
    Flat thin scales and sometimes filamentous smaller ones on lower surface of the costae Fronds widely spaced
    Sori
    Sori indusiate; sporangia sometimes with short capitate hairs.
    Note
    One or two species in N temperate region and one scattered in various areas mostly south of the equator and widespread in tropical Africa extending to 7°N.
    [FTEA]

    Thelypteridaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Rhizomes
    Rhizome short- to long-creeping or erect, with narrow setiferous scales
    Leaves
    Fronds tufted or spaced
    Stipes
    Stipe minutely hairy, scaly at the base
    Leaf lamina
    Lamina pinnate into usually deeply lobed pinnae; in some species with 1–3 pairs of short irregular pinnae at the base; veins simple, the basal ones either free or passing to the margin separately or connivent in the sinus-membrane or anastomosing to form an excurrent vein but sometimes variable in a single frond; sinus-membrane often ending in a tooth; lower surface of pinna with acicular and glandular hairs or glands
    Indusium
    Indusium usually present, hairy or glandular.
    Note
    About 12 species from East Africa to SE Asia, Malesia, Queensland and Pacific to Tahiti.
    [FTEA]

    Thelypteridaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Rhizomes
    Rhizome erect, suberect or creeping, in some species widely so; scales narrow, ± densely hairy
    Leaf lamina
    Lamina simply pinnate, pinnatifid in almost all species with 1–5(–10) pairs of lower pinnae gradually decrescent; lower surface with erect acicular hairs and small capitate hairs and thick orange-red glandular hairs sometimes present
    Leaf veins
    In most species the basal veins or sometimes several pairs anastomose but in a few species the veins are free
    Sori
    Sori indusiate (save in two non-African species); elongate glands present on stalks of sporangia in all but a few species.
    Note
    About 70 species in tropics and subtropics but the position of some African and Neotropical species needs further work, A.R. Smith treats Christella as a synonym of one of his subgenera of Cyclosorus. The species are extremely difficult and in need of much further field work.
    [FTEA]

    Thelypteridaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Rhizomes
    Rhizome short, erect with few brown ovate scales
    Leaf lamina
    Lamina simply pinnate with basal pinnae not reduced
    Pinnae
    Pinnae ± 10–17, alternate or ± opposite, narrowly lanceolate, serrate or crenate but not deeply lobed, glabrous; apical pinna simple, with gemma at base
    Leaves
    Lateral nerves reaching tips of teeth; tertiary veins in 2–3 pairs, anastomosing Fronds tufted
    Sori
    Sori in ± 1–2 lines ± parallel to costa, without indusia
    Sporangia
    Sporangia not setose.
    Note
    A monotypic genus widely distributed in Tropical Africa.
    [FTEA]

    Thelypteridaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Rhizomes
    Rhizome predominantly erect or short-creeping but in a few species long-creeping or scandent with usually thin narrow scales with acicular hairs
    Leaf lamina
    Lamina pinnate, usually with abruptly or gradually reduced basal pinnae, rarely with no basal pinnae reduced.
    Leaves
    Pinnae mostly lobed or crenate, rarely subentire; veins anastomosing or less often just meeting at the sinus or ending above it; sessile spherical yellow glands usually present on parts of the pinnae or on indusia or sporangia but sometimes quite lacking; acicular hairs nearly always present on costae and costules
    Indusium
    Indusia usually present.
    Sporangia
    Sporangia sometimes with yellow glands and occasionally setose.
    [FTEA]

    Thelypteridaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Rhizomes
    Rhizome creeping, sometimes with non-peltate black scales
    Leaves
    Fronds tufted, with indefinite apical growth and bearing many buds on the rachis from which new plants form freely
    Leaf lamina
    Lamina simply pinnate, the pinnae not deeply lobed; veins almost all anastomosing to form an excurrent vein, only a few residual ones free and running to the margin
    Sori
    Sori round or somewhat elongate without indusium; capitate paraphyses present.
    Note
    A monotypic genus distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the Old World.
    [FTEA]

    Thelypteridaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Rhizomes
    Rhizome usually erect but creeping in a few species (some African), the scales usually thin and broad with few marginal hairs
    Leaves
    Fronds sometimes covered with mucilage when very young
    Leaf lamina
    Lamina sometime ± pustular when dry, with lower (often many) pairs of pinnae gradually or abruptly reduced; aerophores at bases of pinnae often swollen and distinct; veins usually anastomosing (always in African species) or free in about a dozen species
    Sporangia
    Sporangia sometimes bearing capitate hairs, setiferous in one African species
    Indusium
    Indusium present or absent.
    [FTEA]

    Thelypteridaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Rhizomes
    Rhizome short-creeping or erect; stipes densely hairy with unicellular (in African species) or septate hairs
    Leaves
    Pinnae subentire to deeply-lobed, the upper ones always adnate to the rachis and in some species only the lowest fully free but usually many free; terminal lobe triangular; spherical glands lacking Fronds simply pinnate, the basal pinnae not or little reduced
    Leaf veins
    Veins free or with many anastomoses
    Indusium
    Indusium absent.
    Sporangia
    Sporangia setose.
    Note
    A pantropical genus with about 18 species; a single species in Africa.
    [FTEA]

    Thelypteridaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Rhizomes
    Rhizome erect (save in one non-African species), the basal part often covered with a mass of tangled roots; scales firm, rather broad with few hairs
    Stipes
    Stipe short
    Leaf lamina
    Lamina pinnate, gradually narrowed to both base and apex; aerophores* at pinna-bases usually swollen.
    Pinnae
    Pinnae deeply lobed
    Leaf veins
    Veins simple except in enlarged basiscopic pinna-lobes; basal veins passing to margin above sinus or connivent just below sinus (in one non-African-mainland species anastomosing with short excurrent vein)
    Leaves
    Lower surface sometimes with red or orange sessile glands or capitate hairs, or acicular hairs which are sometimes hooked
    Sori
    Sori with very small indusia with glandular or acicular hairs or effectively without indusia.
    Note
    * Aerophore: strictly a pore to facilitate breathing, but here very reduced lower pinnae
    [FTEA]

    Thelypteridaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Rhizomes
    Rhizome erect or short creeping with thin broad scales with few hairs
    Stipes
    Stipe scaly near base
    Leaves
    Fronds simply pinnate, bipinnatifid; basal pinnae ± abruptly reduced and small or to aerophores with a minute lamina; veins all free with basal aeroscopic vein passing to base or side of a short sinus-membrane and basal basiscopic vein to other side of the membrane or to edge above base of sinus; lower surface of pinnae with some acicular hairs and short or subsessile capitate hairs often present
    Sori
    Sori indusiate.
    [FTEA]

    Thelypteridaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Rhizomes
    Rhizome long-creeping with rather broad scales with mostly marginal hairs
    Leaf lamina
    Lamina bipinnatifid with lower pinnae not reduced and with flat clathrate scales on the lower surface of the costae but these can be obscure or absent
    Leaf veins
    Basal veins anastomosing with a long excurrent vein to the sinus
    Leaves
    Spherical red glands sometimes present on costules and veins
    Sori
    Sori indusiate; indusia glabrous to pilose; stalks of sporangia with long hairs with terminal red glands.
    Note
    A pantropical genus with probably 3 species according to Holttum but I have found it impossible to use his key satisfactorily. I have also found it difficult to use Alston’s key who also recognised 3 species from West Africa but used different characters. I recognise only one species and was therefore reassured to find that Jacobsen (Ferns S. Afr.: 395 (1983)) and A.R. Smith (Fl. Mesamer. 1: 181 (1995)) had also done so (see note).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Florida, France, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Thelypteris Schmidel appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ratter, J.A. [3546], Brazil Christella K000956609
    Heringer, E.P. [17650], Brazil Christella K000956612
    Heringer, E.P. [17650], Brazil Christella K000956613
    Heringer, E.P. [14060], Brazil Christella K000956614
    Heringer, E.P. [14060], Brazil Christella K000956615
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil Christella K000956616
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil Christella K000956617
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil Christella K000956619
    Fonseca, M.L. [1939], Brazil Christella K000956611
    Pires, J.M. [9908], Brazil Christella K000956610
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil Christella K000956618
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil Christella K000956620
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil Christella K000956621
    Ashton, P.S. [346], Sarawak Pronephrium K001053224
    Jan 1, 2017 Edwards, P.J. [2450], Brazil Goniopteris K000956836
    Jan 1, 2017 Edwards, P.J. [2450], Brazil Goniopteris K000956838
    Jan 1, 2017 Edwards, P.J. [2450], Brazil Goniopteris K000956839
    Jan 1, 2017 Edwards, P.J. [2450], Brazil Goniopteris K000956840
    Jan 1, 2017 Spruce, R. [4659], Peru Goniopteris K000006960
    Jan 1, 2017 Spruce, R. [4659], Peru Goniopteris K000006961
    Jan 1, 2017 Spruce, R. [4659], Peru Goniopteris K000006962
    Edwards, P.J. [2450], Brazil Goniopteris K000956837
    Edwards, P.J. [2387], Brazil Goniopteris K000956841
    Edwards, P.J. [2387], Brazil Goniopteris K000956842
    Edwards, P.J. [2387], Brazil Goniopteris K000956843
    Edwards, P.J. [2387], Brazil Goniopteris K000956844
    Edwards, P.J. [2387], Brazil Goniopteris K000956845
    Edwards, P.J. [2387], Brazil Goniopteris K000956846
    Edwards, P.J. [2387], Brazil Goniopteris K000956847
    Burchell, W. J. [3158], Brazil Goniopteris K000501390
    Killip, E.P. [5038], Colombia Goniopteris K000633654
    Riedl [s.n.], Brazil Goniopteris K000501388
    Riedl [s.n.], Brazil Goniopteris K000501389
    Hamilton, M.A. [HS608], Bermuda Cyclosorus K000297835
    Greene, L. [HS10], Bermuda Cyclosorus K000297836
    Kamau [626], Kenya Cyclosorus K000696605

    First published in Icon. Pl. Anal., ed. Keller: 45 (1763)

    Accepted by

    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). World Ferns: Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    • Fraser-Jenkins, C.R. & al. (2017). An Annotated Checklist of Indian Pteridophytes 1: 1-562. Dehra Dun : BSMPS.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Ic. Pl. ed. Keller: 45, t. 11, 13 (1763)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/