1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Chrysopogon Trin.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to Pacific, S. Central & SE. U.S.A. to Cuba.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (2), or perennial (46). Rhizomes absent (38), or short (9), or elongated (1). Stolons absent (47), or present (1). Culms erect (32/34), or geniculately ascending (6/34); robust (2/4), or slender (2/4); 10-101.1-300 cm long; firm (46), or wiry (2). Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (4/7), or sparse (2/7), or ample (2/7), or fastigiate (1/7). Leaves differentiated into sheath and blade (46), or without demarcation between sheath and blade (2). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (47), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (4), or a ciliolate membrane (10), or a ciliate membrane (3), or a fringe of hairs (31). Leaf-blades aciculate (1), or filiform (2), or linear (46), or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (47), or coriaceous (1); stiff (15), or firm (33). Leaf-blade midrib widened (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme; terminal (47), or terminal and axillary (1). Panicle open (40), or contracted (10). Primary panicle branches not whorled (15), or whorled at lower nodes (4), or whorled at most nodes (31). Racemes bearing a triad of spikelets (36), or few fertile spikelets (12), or many spikelets (5); 1 fertile spikelets on each (36/45), or 2 fertile spikelets on each (7/45), or 3 fertile spikelets on each (11/45), or 4 fertile spikelets on each (7/45), or 5 fertile spikelets on each (6/45), or 6 fertile spikelets on each (4/45), or 7 fertile spikelets on each (2/45), or 8-13 fertile spikelets on each (1/45). Rhachis evident (19), or obsolete (33); tough (31), or fragile at the nodes (17); flattened (2/2). Rhachis internodes indefinite (2/19), or filiform (12/19), or linear (5/19). Rhachis internode tip transverse (4/15), or oblique (12/15); flat (1/5), or cupuliform (4/5). Raceme-bases brief (34), or filiform (14). Spikelets appressed (11/11); in pairs (17), or in threes (36). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster (17), or 2 in the cluster (36). Pedicels filiform (14), or linear (34).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes (1), or rudimentary (1), or well-developed (47); persistent (1), or separately deciduous (47). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (25/44), or mucronate (3/44), or awned (21/44). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (11), or lanceolate (17), or elliptic (3), or oblong (23); laterally compressed (46), or subterete (2); 3.32-6.812-15 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square (5), or oblong (5), or cuneate (29), or linear (9); glabrous (1), or pubescent (7), or pilose (17), or bearded (23); base truncate (1/45), or obtuse (12/45), or acute (10/45), or pungent (22/45); attached obliquely (14/18), or inserted (4/18).
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes (1), or rudimentary (1), or well-developed (47); persistent (1), or separately deciduous (47). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (25/44), or mucronate (3/44), or awned (21/44).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (11), or lanceolate (17), or elliptic (3), or oblong (23); laterally compressed (46), or subterete (2); 3.32-6.812-15 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square (5), or oblong (5), or cuneate (29), or linear (9); glabrous (1), or pubescent (7), or pilose (17), or bearded (23); base truncate (1/45), or obtuse (12/45), or acute (10/45), or pungent (22/45); attached obliquely (14/18), or inserted (4/18).
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets (12), or exceeding apex of florets (36); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume subulate (1), or linear (1), or lanceolate (21), or elliptic (2), or oblong (26); chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (30), or coriaceous (16); without keels; 3 -veined (3/23), or 4 -veined (6/23), or 5 -veined (18/23), or 6 -veined (10/23), or 7 -veined (12/23), or 8 -veined (2/23), or 9 -veined (1/23). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (2), or distinct (46). Lower glume surface smooth (24), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (7), or spinose (16), or tuberculate (1), or muricate (2); glabrous (34), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3), or hispidulous (10), or hispid (1). Lower glume apex entire (46), or dentate (7); 2 -fid (7/7); emarginate (2/14), or truncate (5/14), or obtuse (3/14), or acute (4/14), or attenuate (1/14); muticous (45), or mucronate (6), or awned (2). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (40), or elliptic (1), or oblong (8); chartaceous (9/17), or cartilaginous (2/17), or coriaceous (6/17); with undifferentiated margins (45), or hyaline margins (3); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (47); 3 -veined (14/14), or 4-5 -veined (7/14). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (37), or ciliolate (8), or ciliate (4), or pectinately ciliate (1), or pubescent (1). Upper glume surface smooth (41), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (6); glabrous (43), or puberulous (2), or pilose (3), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1). Upper glume apex entire (46), or dentate (2); 2 -fid (2/2); emarginate (3/15), or truncate (1/15), or obtuse (8/15), or acute (1/15), or acuminate (2/15), or setaceously attenuate (1/15); muticous (10), or mucronate (10), or awned (38); 1 -awned (36/37), or 2 -awned (1/37).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (1), or barren (47); with palea (1), or without significant palea (47). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (23/47), or elliptic (1/47), or oblong (18/47), or obovate (5/47); 1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined (1/39), or 2 -veined (36/39), or 3 -veined (3/39); emarginate (2/6), or truncate (1/6), or obtuse (2/6), or acute (2/6). Fertile lemma linear (15), or lanceolate (1), or oblong (34); hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined (4/23), or 1 -veined (9/23), or 3 -veined (10/23). Lemma lateral veins extending close to apex (1/1). Lemma margins eciliate (43), or ciliolate (4), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex entire (13), or dentate (36); 2 -fid (36/36); emarginate (2/4), or acute (1/4), or acuminate (1/4); muticous (2), or awned (46); 1 -awned (46/46). Principal lemma awn apical (10/46), or from a sinus (37/46); straight (5/46), or curved (1/46), or flexuous (5/46), or geniculate (37/46). Column of lemma awn glabrous (11/39), or hispidulous (2/39), or puberulous (15/39), or pubescent (14/39). Palea present (25), or absent or minute (23); 0.3-0.4313-0.8 length of lemma; hyaline (11/25), or membranous (14/25); 0 -veined (11/12), or 1 -veined (2/12), or 2 -veined (3/12); without keels (9/25), or 2-keeled (16/25). Palea surface glabrous (24/25), or puberulous (2/25).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (10/10); truncate (1/1). Anthers 2 (2/26), or 3 (26/26).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (13/13); fusiform (1/3), or oblong (2/3).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (34), or Australasia (10), or Pacific (2), or North America (2), or South America (3).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Caespitose perennials, sometimes rhizomatous; leaf sheaths sometimes keeled, the basal flabellate-imbricate; ligule a short membrane or a line of hairs; leaf laminas flat or conduplicate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, its primary branches whorled, simple; racemes 1–many-jointed; pedicels linear, filiform, never longitudinally grooved.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet male or neuter. Sessile spikelet laterally compressed, its callus elongated and obtuse to pungent, often large and conical; glumes subequal, unequally awned or awnless; inferior glume chartaceous to coriaceous, often spinulose on the keels and muricate or mammilate on the back; superior lemma entire or bilobed, awned or awnless; awn glabrous to pubescent and usually prominent.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennials, mostly tufted
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, often harsh and glaucous; ligule a short membrane or a line of hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a terminal panicle with whorls of slender persistent branches bearing terminal racemes; each raceme reduced to a triad of 1 sessile and 2 pedicelled spikelets with linear pedicels (rarely an additional pair of spikelets present), commonly the sessile spikelet pallid or yellowish with fulvous callus-beard and the pedicelled spikelet purple
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet ± laterally compressed; callus oblique, obtuse to pungent; lower glume cartilaginous, rounded on the back, sometimes spinulose on the margins; upper glume often awned; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate or entire, with a glabrous or pubescent awn Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, narrowly lanceolate, awned or awnless.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet ± laterally compressed; callus oblique, obtuse to pungent; lower glume cartilaginous, rounded on the back, sometimes spinulose on the margins; upper glume often awned; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate or entire, with a glabrous or pubescent awn
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly ellipsoid
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, narrowly lanceolate, awned or awnless.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Coarse perennials forming large clumps from stout rhizomes
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, firm to hard, the basal sheaths laterally compressed and keeled; ligule a short membrane or a line of hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a terminal panicle with whorls of numerous slender racemes; racemes fragile, composed of several to many spikelets, the internodes and pedicels linear
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet laterally compressed, linear to lanceolate; callus rounded and ± truncate or oblique and pungent; lower glume coriaceous to chartaceous, rounded on the back, spinulose; upper glume with or without an awn; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, with a glabrous geniculate awn from the sinus, the awn sometimes reduced or absent
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet laterally compressed, linear to lanceolate; callus rounded and ± truncate or oblique and pungent; lower glume coriaceous to chartaceous, rounded on the back, spinulose; upper glume with or without an awn; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, with a glabrous geniculate awn from the sinus, the awn sometimes reduced or absent
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, Pedicelled spikelet ♂, similar to the sessile but smaller.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cook Is., Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hainan, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Vanuatu, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Brazil Northeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Kazan-retto, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicobar Is., Panamá, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Réunion, St.Helena, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Chrysopogon Trin. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8781] K001131636
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8786], Nepal K001131645
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8787], Myanmar K001131646
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8787], Myanmar K001131647
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8790], Nepal K001131650
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8791], Nepal K001131651
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8792], Nepal K001131653
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8789], India K001131649
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8792], India K001131654
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8782] K001131637
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8782] K001131638
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8783] K001131639
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8784] K001131640
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8785] K001131641
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8785] K001131642
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8785] K001131643
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8785] K001131644
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8788] K001131648
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8792], India K001131652
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8792] K001131655

    First published in Fund. Agrost.: 187 (1820)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 159 (1917), nom. cons.
    • Fund. Agrost. 187 (1820)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fund. Agrost.: 187 (1820), nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fund. Agrost.: 187 (1820), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0