1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Cynodon Rich.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Old World.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of digitate 1-sided racemes or these sometimes borne in 2 or more closely spaced whorls, the spikelets borne on a flat or semiterete (crescentic in section) rhachis.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1-flowered, with or without a rhachilla extension (this very rarely bearing a minute vestigial floret), strongly laterally compressed, sessile, alternate in 2 rows on a tough axis, tardily disarticulating above the glumes; glumes subequal, membranous, shorter than the floret, 1-nerved (rarely the superior 3-nerved); lemma firmly membranous, keeled, acute or slightly emarginate, glabrous or pilose along the keel and sometimes also on the lateral nerves, awnless.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid, laterally compressed.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Rhizomatous or stoloniferous perennials, usually low-growing, often sward-forming
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear and flat, sometimes filiform; ligule membranous, often ciliolate on the upper edge
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of digitate 1-sided spikes, these sometimes borne in 2 or more closely spaced whorls
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly ovate, 1-flowered, with or without a rhachilla-extension (this very rarely bearing a tiny vestigial floret), strongly laterally compressed, imbricate in 2 rows, awnless; glumes 2, narrow, subequal, shorter than the floret, 1-nerved (rarely the upper 3-nerved); lemma narrowly ovate in side view, ± ciliate on the keel and often also on the side-nerves, usually glabrous on the flanks, its callus glabrous
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid, laterally compressed.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (8). Rhizomes absent (6), or elongated (3). Stolons present. Culms geniculately ascending (7), or decumbent (1), or prostrate (1); slender (1/1); 4-37.16-100 cm long; firm (8), or woody (1); rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Lateral branches ample (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (2), or a ciliolate membrane (7). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (8), or lanceolate (2); stiff (3), or firm (7).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes digitate; erect (1), or ascending (6), or spreading (1), or drooping (1); unilateral. Rhachis wingless (6), or narrowly winged (3); flattened (8/8). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong (1), or ovate (8); laterally compressed; 1.8-2.504-3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong (1), or ovate (8); laterally compressed; 1.8-2.504-3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (8), or deciduous (1); shorter than spikelet (8), or reaching apex of florets (1); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (7), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 0.5-0.8194-1 length of upper glume; membranous (3), or herbaceous (6); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute (8), or acuminate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (7), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 0.1-0.5861-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (3), or herbaceous (6); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex acute (8), or acuminate (1); muticous, or mucronate (1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or ovate; laterally compressed; membranous (1), or cartilaginous; keeled; wingless (8), or winged on keel (1); 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (8). Lemma midvein eciliate (2), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (4), or pubescent (5). Lemma surface glabrous (7), or pubescent (2), or hispidulous (1); hairy on back (1/3), or on veins (2/3); with simple hairs (2/3), or clavate hairs (2/3). Lemma margins eciliate (8), or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex obtuse (1), or acute (8). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (8), or scaberulous (2); eciliate (7), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1). Palea apex dentate (1/1).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (3/3).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (8/8); ellipsoid (1/1); laterally compressed (2/2); trigonous (1/1).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (8), or Temperate Asia (4), or Tropical Asia (4), or Australasia (6), or Pacific (3), or North America (3), or South America (4), or Antarctica (1).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (8), or perennial (1). Stolons absent (8), or present (1). Culms erect (5/8), or geniculately ascending (1/8), or decumbent (2/8), or prostrate (1/8); slender (1/1); 5-28.22-70 cm long; without nodal roots (1/2), or rooting from lower nodes (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (2/3), or ample (1/3). Ligule an eciliate membrane (2), or a ciliolate membrane (6), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blades filiform (2), or linear (6), or lanceolate (1); stiff (1), or firm (8). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (8), or a spatheole (1); exserted (8), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1), or enclosed (1). Spatheole lanceolate (1/1). Racemes single (2), or paired (1), or digitate (6); unilateral. Rhachis persistent (6/7), or deciduous from axis (1/7); flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (4), or with a barren rhachilla extension (5). Spikelets elliptic (1), or oblong; laterally compressed; 1.8-3.17-5.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus pubescent (1/2), or pilose (1/2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (4), or with a barren rhachilla extension (5). Spikelets elliptic (1), or oblong; laterally compressed; 1.8-3.17-5.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus pubescent (1/2), or pilose (1/2).
    Glume
    Glumes deciduous; exceeding apex of florets; similar to fertile lemma in texture (1), or firmer than fertile lemma (8). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1), or oblong (7); 1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (2), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (5); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (8); wingless (8), or winged on keel (1); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface convex (8), or grooved on either side of midvein (1); glabrous (8), or pilose (1). Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume elliptic (2), or oblong; 1.2-1.6-2.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (2), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (5), or indurate (1); with undifferentiated margins (7), or hyaline margins (1), or membranous margins (1); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (8); wingless (8), or winged on keel (1); 1 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth (8), or asperulous (1); glabrous (7), or pilose (2). Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (2), or oblong (2), or ovate (6); laterally compressed; hyaline (1), or membranous (8); keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (3), or ciliate (4), or pubescent (2). Lemma surface glabrous (6), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2); without hair tufts (7), or with marginal hair tufts (1), or with tufts of hair on midvein (1), or with a transverse fringe of hair (1). Lemma margins eciliate (2), or ciliate (6), or pubescent (1). Lemma apex entire (8), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (2), or truncate (2), or obtuse (7); muticous (5), or mucronate (4). Palea 0.8-0.9-1 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (8); 2 -veined. Palea keels separated (7), or approximate (2); wingless (8), or winged (1); smooth (7), or scaberulous (2); eciliate (2), or pubescent (1), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (5).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (6/6).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (7/7); ellipsoid (2/4), or ovoid (1/4), or obovoid (1/4); pitted (1/1). Embryo 0.5-0.625-0.75 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa (5), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (4).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of 1–many digitate 1-sided racemes bearing imbricate spikelets on a flat or triquetrous rhachis.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1-flowered with rhachilla extension (rarely this bearing a minute vestigial floret), strongly laterally compressed, sessile, alternate in 2 rows on a tough axis, disarticulating above the glumes, usually golden-brown or bronze, rarely yellowish-green; glumes subequal, thinly coriaceous, keeled, enclosing the florets, obtuse or rounded at the apex, rarely acute; lemma much shorter than the glumes, membranous, folded along the midnerve, ciliate along the nerves or all over, obtuse or acute at the apex, rarely with a short mucro or awnlet.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials, with erect or geniculately ascending culms
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat and narrowly linear or involute and filiform, acute to acuminate; ligule short, membranous, usually ciliate along the upper edge
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, consisting of 1–many digitate 1-sided spikes bearing flattened imbricate spikelets
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1-flowered, oblong or more rarely ovate, usually with a rhachilla-extension (occasionally with a reduced lemma at its tip in B. fulva), strongly laterally compressed, usually golden brown or bronze, occasionally yellowish green; glumes narrowly oblong-lanceolate, rarely ovate-lanceolate (when flattened), subequal, enclosing the floret, strongly keeled, thinly coriaceous, 1-nerved, obtuse or rounded, rarely acute; lemma much shorter than the glumes, broadly oblong to elliptic-lanceolate (when flattened), membranous, folded along the midnerve, ciliate along the nerves or all over, obtuse or acute, rarely with a short mucro; palea ovate (when flattened), ciliate along the nerves
    Fruits
    Caryopsis obovoid.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Portugal, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Bahamas, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Howland-Baker Is., Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nauru, Nebraska, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Samoa, Society Is., South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, St.Helena, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is.

    Cynodon Rich. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in C.H.Persoon, Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Clayton & Harlan in Kew Bull. 24: 185 (1970), nom. cons.
    • Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in J. S. African Bot. 37: 53 (1971), nom. conserv.
    • Clayton & Harlan in Kew Bull. 24: 185 (1970).
    • de Wet & Harlan in Taxon 19: 565 (1970)
    • Stent in Bothalia 2: 274 (1927).
    • in Persoon, Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Journ. S. Afr. Bot. 37: 53 (1971), nom. conserv.
    • Clayton & Harlan in K.B. 24: 185 (1970)
    • de Wet & Harlan in Taxon 19: 565 (1970)
    • in Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0