1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Holcus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe, Medit. to Caucasus, S. Africa.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (2), or perennial (6). Rhizomes absent (6), or short (1), or elongated (1). Culms erect (5/6), or geniculately ascending (6/6), or decumbent (1/6); 8-50.5-120 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades stiff (1), or firm (7).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (4), or contracted (4). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (7), or 2 fertile florets (1); with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (7). Spikelets elliptic, or oblong (1); laterally compressed; 3-5.406-11 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (7). Floret callus pubescent (1/6), or pilose (4/6), or bearded (1/6).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (7), or 2 fertile florets (1); with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (7). Spikelets elliptic, or oblong (1); laterally compressed; 3-5.406-11 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (7). Floret callus pubescent (1/6), or pilose (4/6), or bearded (1/6).
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (5), or elliptic (3); 0.75-0.9844-1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth (5), or asperulous (3); glabrous (5), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (2), or acute (4), or acuminate (3), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (5), or awned (3). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (6), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 2-2.125-3.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (3), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (4). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (7), or ribbed (1). Upper glume surface smooth (4), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (1); glabrous (2), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (5). Upper glume apex entire, or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); obtuse (2), or acute (2), or acuminate (3), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (2), or mucronate (3), or awned (3); 1 -awned (3/3).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (5), or ovate (3); cartilaginous; without keel (1/7), or keeled (6/7); 3-4 -veined (6), or 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure (7/7). Lemma surface glabrous, or puberulous (1). Lemma apex obtuse (7), or acute (1); muticous (6), or awned (2); 1 -awned (2/2). Principal lemma awn subapical (1/2), or dorsal (1/2); geniculate (2/2). Palea 1 length of lemma. Apical sterile florets 1 in number (7/7); male (6/7), or barren (1/7); linear (1/7), or elliptic (5/7), or ovate (1/7). Apical sterile lemmas awned (7/7). Apical sterile lemma awns straight (2/7), or geniculate (3/7), or hooked (2/7).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
    Distribution
    Europe (6), or Africa (5), or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (1), or North America (2), or South America (1), or Antarctica (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Selvagens, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

    Extinct in:

    Marion-Prince Edward

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Amur, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Chatham Is., Chile Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Falkland Is., Finland, Georgia, Haiti, Hawaii, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kerguelen, Kermadec Is., Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Maine, Marion-Prince Edward, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin

    Holcus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1047 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0