1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Rottboellia L.f.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to Central U.S.A.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Erect annuals
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat; ligule a very short membrane
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single raceme, either terminal or aggregated into a spathate false panicle; racemes cylindrical; internodes squatly clavate, fused to the adjacent pedicel
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet sunk in the internode; callus truncate, with prominent central peg; lower glume coriaceous, broadly convex, 2-keeled, smooth, narrowly winged at the apex; lower floret ♂, with hyaline lemma and well-developed palea; upper lemma entire and awnless Pedicelled spikelet herbaceous or scarious, a little smaller than the sessile; pedicel oblong, flattened, scarcely distinguishable from the internode.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet sunk in the internode; callus truncate, with prominent central peg; lower glume coriaceous, broadly convex, 2-keeled, smooth, narrowly winged at the apex; lower floret ♂, with hyaline lemma and well-developed palea; upper lemma entire and awnless
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ovate in face view, crescentic in side view
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet herbaceous or scarious, a little smaller than the sessile; pedicel oblong, flattened, scarcely distinguishable from the internode.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (5), or perennial (1). Culms erect (3/4), or geniculately ascending (1/4); robust (1/1); 30-153.3-300 cm long; with prop roots (3/4), or rooting from lower nodes (1/4). Culm-internodes terete (1/1), or channelled (1/1). Lateral branches ample (2/2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (3), or a ciliolate membrane (3). Leaf-blades linear (5), or lanceolate (3); stiff (1), or firm (4), or flaccid (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (1), or terminal and axillary (5); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (2), or an inflated leaf-sheath (4); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Peduncle widened at apex (4/4). Racemes single; erect (1), or ascending (5); unilateral (5/5). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subcylindrical and excavated (5/5); terminating in a spikelet (2), or sterile spikelet (4). Spikelet packing abaxial (5/5). Rhachis internodes oblong (5), or cuneate (1). Rhachis internode tip transverse; crateriform. Spikelets sunken (5), or appressed (1); in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels free (1), or fused to internode; columnar (2), or oblong (4).
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets rudimentary (2), or well-developed (5); deciduous with the fertile (5/5). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (5/5).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong (4), or ovate (2); dorsally compressed; symmetrical (2), or gibbous (4); 3-5.791-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous (5/5); base truncate; with central boss (1), or with central peg (5); attached transversely. Companion sterile spikelets rudimentary (2), or well-developed (5); deciduous with the fertile (5/5). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (5/5).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong (4), or ovate (2); dorsally compressed; symmetrical (2), or gibbous (4); 3-5.791-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous (5/5); base truncate; with central boss (1), or with central peg (5); attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets (5), or exceeding apex of florets (1); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong (4), or ovate (2); coriaceous (2), or indurate (4); 2-keeled; wingless (3), or winged on keel (3); 7-8 -veined (1/4), or 9 -veined (2/4), or 10-12 -veined (1/4), or 13 -veined (2/4), or 14-16 -veined (1/4). Lower glume lateral veins distinct (5), or prominent (1). Lower glume surface convex (4), or flat (2), or concave (1); smooth (5), or asperulous (1). Lower glume apex emarginate (2/5), or obtuse (2/5), or acute (1/5). Upper glume ovate; not gibbous (4), or gibbous (2); 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels (1), or 1-keeled (5); wingless (4), or winged on keel (2); 9-10 -veined (2/3), or 11 -veined (3/3). Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong (1), or ovate (5); 1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline (5), or membranous (1); 1 -veined (1/5), or 3 -veined (3/5), or 4 -veined (1/5), or 5 -veined (2/5); obtuse (1/5), or acute (4/5). Palea of lower sterile floret hyaline (5), or membranous (1). Fertile lemma oblong (1/5), or ovate (3/5), or oblate (1/5); laterally compressed (1/1); not gibbous (4), or gibbous (2); hyaline (5), or membranous (1); without keel (1/2), or keeled (1/2); 1 -veined (4), or 3 -veined (2). Lemma apex obtuse (1/5), or acute (4/5). Palea 0.5-0.8333-1 length of lemma; hyaline (5), or membranous (1); 0 -veined (1/1); without keels (5), or 2-keeled (1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (1/1); fleshy (1/1). Anthers 3. Stigmas 2 (2/2).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with tardily free pericarp (1/1); ovoid (1/1). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (1), or North America (1), or South America (1).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Annuals.
    Ligules
    Ligule a very short membrane; leaf laminas flat.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single raceme, either terminal or aggregated into a spathate false panicle; racemes cylindrical or slightly dorsiventrally flattened; internodes clavate, flattened or semi-cylindrical with sunken spikelets, wholly or partly fused to the adjacent pedicel.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ovate in face view, crescentic in side view.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet herbaceous, a little smaller than the sessile spikelet; pedicel oblong, flattened, often scarcely distinguishable from the internode. Sessile spikelet callus truncate, with prominent central peg or ridge; inferior glume coriaceous, broadly convex on the back, 2-keeled, smooth, narrowly winged at the apex; inferior floret male, with a hyaline lemma and well developed palea; superior lemma entire and awnless.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (21). Rhizomes absent (19), or short (2), or elongated (1). Culms erect (13/13); robust (1/4), or slender (3/4); 10-120.2-400 cm long; firm (21), or wiry (1); with prop roots (1/1). Culm-internodes elliptical in section (3/3). Lateral branches lacking (2/9), or sparse (2/9), or ample (7/9). Ligule an eciliate membrane (12), or a ciliolate membrane (9), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (21), or lanceolate (4); stiff (1), or firm (21). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (13), or compound (9); paniculate (4/8), or fastigiate (5/8). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (4), or terminal and axillary (18); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (11), or a spatheole (11); exserted (14), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (9). Spatheole linear (11/11), or lanceolate (1/11). Peduncle widened at apex (9/9). Racemes single. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; angular (10), or semiterete (12). Rhachis internodes columnar (1), or oblong (2), or clavate (5), or cuneate (13), or pyriform (1); unspecialized (20), or with the lower often bearing triads (2). Rhachis internode tip transverse; flat (1), or crateriform (21). Spikelets sunken (12), or appressed (10); in pairs (21), or in threes (1). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster (21), or 2 in the cluster (2). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 0 in the cluster (1), or 1 in the cluster. Pedicels free (21), or fused to internode (1); columnar (13), or oblong (7), or clavate (1), or cuneate (1), or inflated (1); tip rectangular (1/14), or cupuliform (13/14).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets rudimentary (14), or well-developed (12); persistent (3/21), or deciduous with the fertile (9/21), or fused to and deciduous with fertile spikelet belonging to segment above (1/21), or separately deciduous (9/21). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (21), or square (1). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (1), or oblong (10), or ovate (11), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; 2.158-4.248-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous (4/6), or pubescent (2/6); base truncate; simple (1), or with central peg (21); attached transversely.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets rudimentary (14), or well-developed (12); persistent (3/21), or deciduous with the fertile (9/21), or fused to and deciduous with fertile spikelet belonging to segment above (1/21), or separately deciduous (9/21). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (21), or square (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (1), or oblong (10), or ovate (11), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; 2.158-4.248-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous (4/6), or pubescent (2/6); base truncate; simple (1), or with central peg (21); attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (21); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong (10), or ovate (11), or obovate (1); not gibbous (21), or gibbous (1); coriaceous (19), or indurate (3); without keels (1), or 2-keeled (21); wingless (2), or winged on keel (20); 3-4 -veined (1/5), or 5 -veined (3/5), or 7 -veined (2/5). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (21); without ribs (21), or ribbed (1). Lower glume surface convex (19), or flat (2), or concave (1); smooth (14), or with hooked spines (1), or muricate (2), or rugose (1), or cancellate (2), or areolate (5); glabrous (20), or pubescent (4). Lower glume apex emarginate (7/17), or truncate (1/17), or obtuse (5/17), or acute (4/17), or caudate (1/17). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or oblong (19), or ovate (2); membranous (11), or chartaceous (10), or cartilaginous (1); 1-keeled; wingless (17), or winged on keel (5); 1 -veined (3/12), or 3 -veined (9/12). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (21), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface glabrous (21), or puberulous (1); without hair tufts (21), or with a dorsal tuft of hair (1). Upper glume apex acute (6/6).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea (19), or without significant palea (3). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1), or oblong (18), or ovate (3); hyaline; 0 -veined (3/7), or 2 -veined (3/7), or 3 -veined (1/7); obtuse (6/6). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (17), or oblong (1), or ovate (3); hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined (10/14), or 1 -veined (7/14), or 3 -veined (3/14). Lemma apex obtuse (6/6). Palea 0.8-0.9-1 length of lemma; hyaline (6), or membranous (16).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (9/9). Stigmas 2 (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (9), or Australasia (1), or North America (6), or South America (7).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennials, often tall
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat, rarely filiform; ligule short, membranous; basal sheaths often laterally compressed
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single raceme, sometimes solitary and terminal but commonly aggregated into a spathate false panicle; racemes cylindrical or dorsally compressed; internodes clavate, often squatly so, shorter than the sessile spikelet
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet convex on the back; callus truncate, with a prominent central peg; lower glume crustaceous or thinly coriaceous, nearly always winged, 2-keeled in the lower half, smooth, rugose or areolar, usually glabrous; upper glume awnless; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma entire and awnless Pedicelled spikelet well developed and ♂, or vestigial, awnless; pedicel clavate, oblong or curved.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet convex on the back; callus truncate, with a prominent central peg; lower glume crustaceous or thinly coriaceous, nearly always winged, 2-keeled in the lower half, smooth, rugose or areolar, usually glabrous; upper glume awnless; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma entire and awnless
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, dorsally compressed
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet well developed and ♂, or vestigial, awnless; pedicel clavate, oblong or curved.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Perennials, often tall.
    Leaf sheaths
    Basal leaf sheaths often laterally compressed; ligule a short membrane; leaf laminas linear, flat, rarely filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single raceme, sometimes solitary and terminal but commonly aggregated into a spathate false panicle; racemes cylindrical or dorsiventrally flattened, the spikelets paired or occasionally in triplets of 2 sessile and 1 pedicelled; internodes clavate, often squatly so, shorter than the sessile spikelet, transversely articulated.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, dorsally compressed.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet well developed and male, or vestigial, awnless; pedicel clavate or foliaceous, oblong or curved, sometimes auriculate at the summit. Sessile spikelet convex on the back; callus truncate with a prominent central peg; inferior glume crustaceous or thinly coriaceous, nearly always winged towards the apex, 2-keeled in the inferior half, smooth, rugose or areolar, usually glabrous; superior glume awnless; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma, with or without a palea; superior lemma entire and awnless.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Arkansas, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kansas, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Maryland, Mauritius, Mexico Southeast, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Oman, Panamá, Paraguay, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Cayman Is., Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Galápagos, Guatemala, Haiti, Illinois, Indiana, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Norfolk Is., Peru, Puerto Rico, Windward Is.

    Rottboellia L.f. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8876], Singapore K001131724
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8877], Myanmar K001131725
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8876], Singapore K001131726
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8877], Myanmar K001131729
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8877], Myanmar K001131730
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8877], Myanmar K001131727
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8877], Myanmar K001131728
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [9184], Brazil Coelorachis K001106283

    First published in Suppl. Pl.: 13 (1782)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2019). World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP Database) The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 72 (1917), nom. cons.
    • Nov. Gram. Gen. 23 (1779)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Suppl. Pl.: 114 (1781). nom. conserv., non Scop. (1777).
    • Nov. Gram. Gen.: 23 (1779)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Taxon 29: 692 (1980)
    • Nov. Gram. Gen.: 23 (1779), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0