1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Setaria P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (37), or perennial (66). Rhizomes absent (85), or short (14), or elongated (6). Stolons absent (102), or present (4). Culms erect (50/78), or geniculately ascending (52/78), or decumbent (5/78), or rambling (2/78), or leaning (1/78), or scandent (1/78); robust (13/21), or of moderate stature (1/21), or slender (3/21), or weak (4/21); 4-85.71-400 cm long; firm (101), or wiry (2), or woody (1); without nodal roots (8/11), or rooting from lower nodes (11/11). Culm-internodes terete (1/8), or channelled (2/8), or elliptical in section (6/8). Culm-nodes constricted (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (14/30), or sparse (11/30), or ample (13/30), or fastigiate (1/30). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (26), or a fringe of hairs (74), or absent (2). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (97), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (1), or with a false petiole (10). Leaf-blades filiform (2), or linear (90), or lanceolate (28), or elliptic (1); herbaceous (102), or coriaceous (1); stiff (10), or firm (86), or flaccid (8). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (6/6). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (6/6). Leaf-blade apex muticous (102), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (101), or composed of racemes (2); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Panicle open (28/101), or contracted (11/101), or spiciform (64/101). Primary panicle branches not whorled (84/85), or whorled at most nodes (2/85); without sterile bristles (4/85), or sterile at the tips (81/85). Racemes borne along a central axis (2/2); unilateral (1/1). Rhachis angular (1/1); terminating in a barren extension (2/2); extension subulate (1/1). Spikelet packing 2 -rowed (1/1). Spikelets appressed (1/1); solitary (7/102), or in pairs (1/102), or subtended by an involucre (97/102). Fertile spikelets sessile (35/100), or sessile and pedicelled (2/100), or pedicelled (64/100); 1 in the cluster (87/97), or 2 in the cluster (15/97), or 3 in the cluster (16/97), or 4 in the cluster (9/97), or 5 in the cluster (6/97), or 6 in the cluster (5/97), or 7-8 in the cluster (3/97), or 9 in the cluster (1/97). Involucre composed of bristles (97/97). Involucral bristles persistent (97/97); 0-4-15 in principal whorl; flexible (71/78), or rigid (7/78); obtuse (1/97), or attenuate (96/97). Pedicels oblong (47/56), or reduced to a stump (9/56); tip discoid (1/7), or cupuliform (6/7).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or elliptic (38), or oblong (8), or ovate (57), or orbicular (13), or obovate (4); of unremarkable solid shape (102), or hemispherical (1); laterally compressed (5), or dorsally compressed (98); symmetrical (70), or gibbous (32), or plano-convex (1); 1.2-2.526-4.6 mm long; persistent on plant (1), or falling entire (102). Floret callus glabrous (1/2), or pubescent (1/2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or elliptic (38), or oblong (8), or ovate (57), or orbicular (13), or obovate (4); of unremarkable solid shape (102), or hemispherical (1); laterally compressed (5), or dorsally compressed (98); symmetrical (70), or gibbous (32), or plano-convex (1); 1.2-2.526-4.6 mm long; persistent on plant (1), or falling entire (102). Floret callus glabrous (1/2), or pubescent (1/2).
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (89), or reaching apex of florets (25), or exceeding apex of florets (2); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate (93), or orbicular (12), or oblate (1); clasping (9/9); hyaline (5), or membranous (99); without keels; 0 -veined (1/99), or 1 -veined (10/99), or 2 -veined (6/99), or 3 -veined (83/99), or 4 -veined (29/99), or 5 -veined (38/99), or 6 -veined (2/99), or 7 -veined (3/99). Lower glume lateral veins absent (6), or obscure (1), or distinct (96), or prominent (1). Lower glume surface glabrous (102), or pubescent (1). Lower glume apex truncate (7/101), or obtuse (33/101), or acute (72/101), or acuminate (3/101), or cuspidate (1/101); muticous (101), or mucronate (2). Upper glume elliptic (17), or oblong (3), or ovate (84), or orbicular (2); not gibbous (97), or gibbous (6); 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (102); with undifferentiated margins (102), or chartaceous margins (1); without keels (102), or 1-keeled (1); 3-6-11 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth (101), or scabrous (2); glabrous (102), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex emarginate (1/99), or obtuse (33/99), or acute (62/99), or acuminate (2/99), or cuspidate (5/99); muticous (100), or mucronate (3).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (33), or barren (81); with palea (90), or without significant palea (15). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (19/102), or oblong (4/102), or ovate (79/102); 1-1.062-1.2 length of fertile lemma; membranous (99), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (2), or indurate (1); 3-4 -veined (2/98), or 5 -veined (90/98), or 6 -veined (18/98), or 7 -veined (26/98); without grooves (93), or sulcate (11); obtuse (15/95), or acute (73/95), or acuminate (2/95), or setaceously attenuate (1/95), or cuspidate (5/95). Palea of lower sterile floret hyaline (89/90), or membranous (1/90). Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or elliptic (20), or oblong (4), or ovate (78), or orbicular (3), or trullate (1); laterally compressed (5), or dorsally compressed (98); not gibbous (15), or gibbous (88); cartilaginous (1/102), or indurate (101/102); without keel (100), or keeled (3); 3 -veined (1/2), or 5 -veined (1/2). Lemma surface smooth (96), or granulose (1), or scaberulous (1), or striate (3), or punctate (4); unwrinkled (29), or rugulose (38), or rugose (37), or corrugate (6). Lemma margins involute; eciliate (102), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex obtuse (6/56), or acute (26/56), or acuminate (1/56), or apiculate (25/56), or rostrate (1/56); without ornament (101), or scabrous (1), or pubescent (1); muticous (101), or mucronate (2). Palea not rolled (1), or involute (102); 0.75 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (1), or cartilaginous (1), or indurate (101). Palea keels eciliate (101), or ciliolate (2).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (7/7). Anthers 3 (25/25).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (32/32); ellipsoid (9/18), or ovoid (6/18), or orbicular (6/18); dorsally compressed (2/2); plano-convex (2/2). Embryo 0.5-0.6633-0.9 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (13/13).
    Distribution
    Europe (5), or Africa (43), or Temperate Asia (18), or Tropical Asia (16), or Australasia (16), or Pacific (9), or North America (27), or South America (48).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, either spiciform or with spikelets ± contracted about primary branches, these occasionally reduced to racemes, all or most of the spikelets subtended by 1 or more scabrid (rarely hirsute) bristles which persist on axis.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets oblong to ovate, ± gibbous.
    Glume
    Glumes unequal, the inferior generally much smaller, ovate from a clasping base.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma crustaceous, strongly convex on the back, often rugose. Inferior lemma as long as spikelet, herbaceous.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat or folded, sometimes pleated; ligule usually a ciliate rim
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, open or spike-like, the spikelets (or only the terminal) subtended by 1 or more bristles which persist on the axis after the spikelets fall
    Spikelets
    Spikelets oblong to ovate, ± plano-convex, awnless; glumes unequal, the lower generally much smaller, ovate from a clasping base; lower floret ♂ or barren, as long as the spikelet, herbaceous; upper lemma crustaceous, strongly convex on the back, often rugose, the margins inrolled and clasping only the edges of the palea
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong or ellipsoid.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (6), or perennial (31). Rhizomes absent (29), or short (1), or elongated (7). Stolons absent (36), or present (2). Culms erect (23/33), or geniculately ascending (15/33), or decumbent (4/33), or prostrate (4/33); slender (10/11), or weak (1/11); 7-55.29-200 cm long; spongy (5), or compressible (2), or firm (24), or wiry (5), or woody (1); without nodal roots (3/8), or rooting from lower nodes (8/8). Culm-internodes channelled (1/2), or elliptical in section (1/2). Lateral branches lacking (5/18), or sparse (12/18), or ample (7/18). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (7), or a fringe of hairs (28). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole, or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (36), or lanceolate (1); stiff (4), or firm (33).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single (2), or borne along a central axis; appressed (18), or erect (1), or ascending (17), or deflexed (1); unilateral (30), or paucilateral (7); bearing few fertile spikelets (16), or many spikelets (21); bearing 1-7-20 fertile spikelets on each. Central inflorescence axis unspecialized (33), or flattened (4); tip without extension (14), or with blunt extension (6), or filiform (17). Rhachis wingless (27), or narrowly winged (9), or broadly winged (1); angular (29/36), or subterete (7/36); terminating in a sterile spikelet (1), or barren extension; extension inconspicuous (1), or flattened (3), or subulate (10), or bristle-like (23). Spikelet packing abaxial; crowded (7), or contiguous (28), or lax (2), or distant (1); 2 -rowed (24/24). Spikelets appressed (4/8), or ascending (1/8), or spreading (1/8), or deflexed (2/8); solitary (36), or in pairs (4), or subtended by an involucre (4). Fertile spikelets sessile (14), or pedicelled (25); 1-2 in the cluster (1/1). Involucre composed of bristles (4/4). Involucral bristles persistent (2/2); 1 in principal whorl (1/1). Pedicels linear (1/7), or oblong (2/7), or reduced to a stump (4/7); tip discoid (15/15).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (6), or elliptic (22), or oblong (3), or ovate (18), or orbicular (1), or obovate (2); of unremarkable solid shape (36), or globose (1); laterally compressed (6), or dorsally compressed (31); symmetrical (13), or gibbous (9), or turgidly plano-convex (1), or plano-convex (14); 1.245-2.592-4.5 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (34), or elongated between glumes (3), or elongated below basal sterile floret (3), or elongated between basal sterile florets (2), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (6), or elliptic (22), or oblong (3), or ovate (18), or orbicular (1), or obovate (2); of unremarkable solid shape (36), or globose (1); laterally compressed (6), or dorsally compressed (31); symmetrical (13), or gibbous (9), or turgidly plano-convex (1), or plano-convex (14); 1.245-2.592-4.5 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (34), or elongated between glumes (3), or elongated below basal sterile floret (3), or elongated between basal sterile florets (2), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1).
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (29), or reaching apex of florets (10); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (36), or gaping (1). Lower glume elliptic (1), or oblong (4), or ovate (21), or orbicular (7), or oblate (7); clasping (14/14); not gibbous (35), or gibbous (2); 0.3-0.4-0.5 length of upper glume; hyaline (2), or membranous (36), or scarious (1); without keels; 0 -veined (6), or 1 -veined (5), or 2 -veined (4), or 3 -veined (26), or 4 -veined (13), or 5 -veined (20), or 6 -veined (3), or 7 -veined (4). Lower glume lateral veins absent (3), or distinct (32), or prominent (2). Lower glume surface smooth (36), or asperulous (1); glabrous, or puberulous (1). Lower glume apex truncate (9), or obtuse (17), or acute (17), or acuminate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (22), or oblong (2), or ovate (8), or orbicular (5), or obovate (1); not gibbous (34), or gibbous (3); 0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (32), or cartilaginous (5); without keels; 3-7-15 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins transversely connected at apex (1/4), or with cross-veins (3/4); parallel at apex (1/1). Upper glume apex truncate (2), or obtuse (28), or acute (16), or acuminate (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (9), or barren (28); with palea (17), or without significant palea (22). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (2), or elliptic (24), or ovate (12), or orbicular (1), or obovate (1); membranous (32), or cartilaginous (5); 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (32), or 6 -veined (7), or 7 -veined (9), or 9-10 -veined (1), or 11 -veined (3), or 12-13 -veined (1); without grooves (27), or sulcate (10); obtuse (17), or acute (32), or acuminate (1). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (29), or ovate (10), or obovate (1); laterally compressed (4/4); not gibbous (32), or gibbous (5); indurate; of similar consistency on margins (36), or much thinner on margins (1); without keel; 5 -veined (6/6), or 6-7 -veined (1/6). Lemma lateral veins obscure (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (27), or granulose (8), or striate (3); unwrinkled (6), or rugulose (24), or rugose (9). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse (2/33), or acute (28/33), or acuminate (1/33), or apiculate (5/33); without ornament (36), or pubescent (1); muticous (36), or mucronate (1). Palea embraced by lemma (2), or reflexed at apex (35); 1 length of lemma; indurate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (9/9).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (17/17); orbicular (2/2). Embryo 0.2-0.4533-0.66 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (6), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (23), or Pacific (4), or North America (4), or South America (7).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials, often aquatic
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear; ligule a ciliate rim
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of several to many short straight racemes spaced along a common axis and ± appressed to shallow hollows in it; rhachis triquetrous or winged, usually ending in a point, bearing single (very rarely paired) imbricate spikelets, their lower glume abaxial
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate, dorsally compressed, glabrous; lower glume much shorter than the spikelet; upper glume almost as long as the spikelet, occasionally shorter; lower floret ♂ or barren, its lemma resembling the upper glume; upper lemma crustaceous, acute, its margins inrolled and clasping only the edges of the palea; upper palea acute, the tip often briefly reflexed
    Fruits
    Caryopsis elliptic, dorsally compressed.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of short racemes along a central axis, these ending in an inconspicuous point, the spikelets borne singly and often in 2 neat rows, rarely the lower paired or clustered.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets abaxial, ovate.
    Glume
    Superior glume 1/3 to as long as spikelet, the inferior shorter.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma crustaceous, as long as spikelet, acute; superior palea acute.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alberta, Ascension, Baltic States, British Columbia, Caroline Is., Chatham Is., Cook Is., Denmark, East European Russia, Easter Is., Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Finland, Great Britain, Hawaii, Kermadec Is., Maine, Maldives, Manitoba, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Pitcairn Is., Prince Edward I., Québec, Samoa, Saskatchewan, Society Is., South Dakota, Sweden, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vermont, Wake I., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon

    Setaria P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2001 Cable, S. [3223], Cameroon K000107897
    Jan 1, 1971 Riedel, L. [s.n.], Brazil K001078690
    Beck, G. [9446], Paraguay K001078693
    Giulietti, A.M. [2289], Brazil K001078696
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3907], Brazil K001078688
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2777], Brazil K001078695
    Bamps, P. [5039], Brazil K001078700
    Folli, D.A. [2495], Brazil K001078697
    Ribas, O.S. [1087], Brazil K001078698
    Schinini, A. [s.n.], Paraguay K001078701
    Zanin, A. [490], Brazil K001078689
    Carvalho, A.M.V. [4166], Brazil K001078692
    Ferrucci, S. [352], Brazil K001078699
    Hamilton, B. [s.n.], Brazil K001078694
    Passos, L.C. [349], Brazil K001078691
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8651] K001131119

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 51 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Morrone, O., Aliscioni, S.S., Veldkamp, J.F., Pensiero, J.F., Zuloaga, F.O. & Kellogg, E.A. (2014). Revision of the Old World species of Setaria (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) Systematic Botany Monographs 96: 1-161.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 768 (1920–30), nom. cons.
    • Ess. Agrost. 51 (1812)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Ess. Agrost: 51 (1812) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Ess. Agrost.: 51 (1812), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/