1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Sorghum Moench

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Caucasus to Central Asia and Pacific, Mexico to Central America.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (20), or perennial (13). Rhizomes absent (25), or short (3), or elongated (4). Culms erect (20/20), or geniculately ascending (4/20), or decumbent (1/20); robust (5/5), or of moderate stature (1/5); 25-180.2-600 cm long; firm (30), or wiry (1); without nodal roots (14/15), or with prop roots (11/15). Culm-nodes constricted (3/3), or flush with internodes (2/3). Lateral branches lacking (6/8), or sparse (6/8). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (30), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (16), or a ciliolate membrane (18), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (1), or firm (30). Leaf-blade midrib widened (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme; terminal, or terminal and axillary (1). Panicle open (28), or contracted (4). Primary panicle branches not whorled (19), or whorled at lower nodes (2), or whorled at most nodes (10); without sterile bristles (30), or sterile at lowest node (1). Racemes bearing a triad of spikelets (7), or few fertile spikelets (20), or many spikelets (7); 1-4-21 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis evident (28), or obsolete (6); tough (6), or fragile at the nodes (26). Rhachis internodes filiform (14/28), or linear (15/28). Rhachis internode tip transverse (19/28), or oblique (9/28); cupuliform (14/14). Spikelets appressed (5/5); in pairs (28), or in threes (7). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster (26), or 2 in the cluster (8). Pedicels filiform (30), or linear (1).
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent, or well-developed (2). Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels (1), or well-developed (30); persistent (5/30), or separately deciduous (26/30). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (29/30), or square (1/30). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (29/30), or mucronate (2/30), or awned (2/30).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (8), or elliptic (15), or oblong (6), or ovate (5), or orbicular (1), or obovate (5), or oblanceolate (2); dorsally compressed; 3-8.161-20 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (29); deciduous with accessory branch structures (29/29). Spikelet callus brief (19), or square (2), or oblong (1), or cuneate (8), or linear (2); glabrous (1/18), or pubescent (5/18), or pilose (7/18), or bearded (6/18); base truncate (1), or obtuse (21), or pungent (10); attached obliquely (2/2). Basal sterile spikelets absent, or well-developed (2). Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels (1), or well-developed (30); persistent (5/30), or separately deciduous (26/30). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (29/30), or square (1/30). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (29/30), or mucronate (2/30), or awned (2/30).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (8), or elliptic (15), or oblong (6), or ovate (5), or orbicular (1), or obovate (5), or oblanceolate (2); dorsally compressed; 3-8.161-20 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (29); deciduous with accessory branch structures (29/29). Spikelet callus brief (19), or square (2), or oblong (1), or cuneate (8), or linear (2); glabrous (1/18), or pubescent (5/18), or pilose (7/18), or bearded (6/18); base truncate (1), or obtuse (21), or pungent (10); attached obliquely (2/2).
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas, or gaping (1). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (4), or oblong (1), or ovate (25); chartaceous (3), or cartilaginous (3), or coriaceous (27); without keels (23), or 2-keeled (8); wingless (29), or winged on keel (2); 5-9-20 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (30), or ribbed (1). Lower glume surface convex (30), or flat (1); smooth (29), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (17), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (13), or pilose (12), or villous (5), or hispid (1). Lower glume apex entire (22), or dentate (10); 2 -fid (4/10), or 3 -fid (6/10); emarginate (1/20), or truncate (1/20), or obtuse (3/20), or acute (14/20), or rostrate (3/20); muticous (30), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or ovate (28); chartaceous (3), or cartilaginous (3), or coriaceous (27); without keels (29), or 1-keeled (2); wingless (30), or winged on margins (1); 5 -veined (8/20), or 6 -veined (7/20), or 7 -veined (19/20), or 8-9 -veined (3/20), or 10-11 -veined (1/20). Upper glume lateral veins without cross-veins (1/4), or with cross-veins (4/4). Upper glume surface smooth (29), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (20), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (14), or pilose (9), or villous (2); with simple hairs (21/22), or tubercle-based hairs (2/22). Upper glume apex entire (30), or dentate (2); 2 -fid (2/2); truncate (1/11), or obtuse (3/11), or acute (6/11), or acuminate (2/11), or setaceously attenuate (2/11); muticous, or mucronate (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (17), or elliptic (13), or oblong (1); hyaline; 2 -veined (30/30), or 3-5 -veined (1/30); acute (19/19). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (19), or ovate (8), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed (2/2); hyaline; 1 -veined (30), or 2 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (2). Lemma surface glabrous (30), or pubescent (1). Lemma margins eciliate (13), or ciliolate (3), or ciliate (15). Lemma apex entire (3), or dentate (21), or lobed (10); 2 -fid; incised 0.2-0.2817-0.33 of lemma length; muticous (7), or awned (30); 1 -awned (30/30). Principal lemma awn from a sinus (30/30); geniculate (30/30). Column of lemma awn glabrous (17/30), or pubescent (11/30), or ciliate (3/30). Palea present (4), or absent or minute (27); hyaline (1/4), or membranous (3/4); 0 -veined (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (29/29); fleshy (19/19); glabrous (7/29), or ciliate (26/29). Anthers 3 (26/26). Stigmas 2 (19/19). Ovary glabrous (6/8), or pubescent on apex (2/8).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (25/25); ellipsoid (7/17), or oblong (4/17), or ovoid (1/17), or obovoid (12/17); isodiametric (1/7), or dorsally compressed (5/7), or flattened (1/7); apex umbonate (1/1). Embryo 0.5-0.55-0.6 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (3/3).
    Distribution
    Europe (3), or Africa (8), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (14), or Australasia (23), or Pacific (6), or North America (5), or South America (6).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Inflorescence a large panicle, its primary branches simple or subdivided, bearing short dense racemes with pilose internodes.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet male or barren, or reduced to the inferior glume. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse or pungent; inferior glume cartilaginous, convex on the back, rounded on the flanks but becoming 2-keeled near the apex, usually pilose; superior lemma awned or awnless.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials, mostly robust, with or without rhizomes
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, often broad; ligule membranous or scarious, rarely a line of hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a large terminal panicle, with tough persistent branches bearing short fragile (except in cultivated species) racemes; internodes and pedicels filiform
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse, rarely pungent; lower glume ± coriaceous, broadly convex across the back, becoming 2-keeled and narrowly winged near the tip; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, with a glabrous awn from the sinus, sometimes entire and muticous
    Fruits
    Caryopsis mostly obovoid, dorsally compressed
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, mostly linear-lanceolate to subulate, usually much narrower than the sessile and awnless. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse, rarely pungent; lower glume ± coriaceous, broadly convex across the back, becoming 2-keeled and narrowly winged near the tip; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, with a glabrous awn from the sinus, sometimes entire and muticous
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, mostly linear-lanceolate to subulate, usually much narrower than the sessile and awnless.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cook Is., Cyprus, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Amur, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, California, Cayman Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, France, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Italy, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kriti, Krym, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manchuria, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Samoa, Sardegna, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, St.Helena, Suriname, Switzerland, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

    Sorghum Moench appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hinton, G.B. [5552], Guerrero K000476337
    Sudan K000280783
    Sudan K000280782
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8779] K001131631
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8779], Myanmar K001131632

    First published in Methodus: 207 (1794)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Snowden in J. Linn. Soc. 55: 191 (1955), nom. cons.
    • F.T.A. 9: 104 (1917)
    • Meth. 207 (1794)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Setshogo in Kirkia 17: 138 (2001).
    • Ivanyukovich & Doronina in Trudy Prikl. Bot. 69: 18–27 (1980).
    • Celarier in Cytologia 23: 395–418 (1959).
    • Snowden in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 55: 191–260 (1955).
    • Garber in Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 23: 283–361 (1950).
    • C.E. Hubbard in Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 34: t. 3364 (1938).
    • Methodus: 207 (1794) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Celarier in Cytologia 23: 395–418 (1959), nom. conserv.
    • Snowden in J.L.S. 55: 191 (1955)
    • Garber in Univ. California Publ. Bot. 23: 283–361 (1950)
    • C.E. Hubbard in Hook., Ic. Pl. 34, fig. 3364 (1938)
    • Meth.: 207 (1794)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0