1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Chascanum E.Mey.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa to India.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Erect or spreading perennial herbs or undershrubs, often quite woody at base and often densely pubescent Leaves opposite or subopposite, mostly ovate or oblong, toothed or incised-dentate, rarely ± entire, ± petiolate
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate in terminal spikes or spike-like racemes; rhachis not excavated; bracts small and narrow; bracteoles minute or absent
    Calyx
    Calyx narrowly tubular, 5-ribbed and 5-angled, somewhat oblique, 5-toothed, dilating and splitting longitudinally at maturity
    Corolla
    Corolla white, yellowish or pink, infundibuliform or hypocrateriform; tube slender, straight or curved, often widened at apex, glabrous outside, pilose inside between stamens; limb ± oblique, with 5 subequal or unequal lobes, ± 2-lipped
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted in upper part of the corolla-tube, included or slightly exserted
    Pistil
    Ovary cylindrical or narrowly oblong, glabrous, 2-locular, each locule with one basal anatropous ovule; style terminal, filiform, elongate; stigma ± oblique, sub-bilobed
    Fruits
    Fruit straw-coloured to black, oblong, of 2 1-seeded linear-oblong nutlets ribbed on outer surface, sometimes winged at apex, minutely verruculose-asperulous on seed-part inside
    Seeds
    Seeds linear, exalbuminous.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Distribution
    A genus of c. 25 species, mainly African, extending to Madagascar, Arabia, Pakistan and India.
    Habit
    Erect or spreading perennial herbs or undershrubs, ± woody at the base, ± densely pubescent, the [a4] indumentum often with gland-tipped hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite-decussate, simple, entire, serrate or dentate, lobed or pinnatipartite, sessile or petiolate.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate in terminal spikes or racemes, slightly zygomorphic[a5].
    Calyx
    Calyx narrowly tubular, 5-angled, with a green longitudinal rib on each angle and hyaline whitish between the ribs, slightly oblique, 5-dentate or 5-apiculate, the teeth ± unequal; fruiting calyx dilating and splitting longitudinally at the front, from base to apex.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or yellowish, funnel-shaped or hypocrateriform; tube slender straight or curved, somewhat widened at the apex, glabrous outside; limb ± oblique, 5-lobed or 5-partite with lobes subequal or unequal, glabrous outside, papillose-hairy at the base as well as in the throat.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, included, inserted in the upper part of the corolla tube; filaments short, shortly glandular hairy; anthers ovate, basifixed.
    Pistil
    Ovary cylindric, glabrous, 1-carpellate, carpel 2-locular, each locule with one basal anatropous ovule; style terminal, filiform, glabrous; stigma ± oblique, divided at the apex into an anterior stigmatiferous lobe and a posterior small tooth.
    Fruits
    Fruit a schizocarp enclosed within the persistent calyx, shorter than the calyx, oblong, hard, glabrous, formed by 2 equal 1-seeded mericarps, ribbed on the outer surface, sometimes winged in the upper 1/3, minutely verruculose-asperulous on the seed part inside, separating from one another[a6].
    Seeds
    Seeds linear, without albumen.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cape Provinces, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Guinea, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Chascanum E.Mey. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 275 (1838)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Moldenke in Fedde Rep. 45: 114 (1938).
    • Comm. Pl.Afr. Austr. 275 (1837)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Atkins in Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 463 (2004).
    • Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII : 463 (2004).
    • Kew Bull. 43 : 319 (1988).
    • Sebsebe & Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 43: 319 (1988).
    • Taxon 35 : 391 (1986).
    • Gilbert et al. in Taxon 35: 391 (1986).
    • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 57 : 265–273 (1984).
    • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 45 : 113–160, 300–319 (1938).
    • Moldenke in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 45: 113–160, 300–319 (1938).
    • Comment. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 275 (1838) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Sebsebe & Verdc. in K.B. 43: 519 (1988), nom. conserv.
    • Gilbert et al. in Taxon 35: 391 (1986)
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 52: 323–329 (1983)
    • Saxena in Indian Journ. Bot. 3: 95–102 (1980) (pollen)
    • Gillett in K.B. 10: 131 (1955)
    • Moldenke in F.R. 46: 1–12 (1939)
    • Rev. Sudam. Bot. 6: 15–24 (1939)
    • Moldenke in F.R. 45: 113–160, 300–319 (1938)
    • Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 275 (1838)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0