1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Colubrina Rich. ex Brongn.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Rhamnaceae, R. B. Drummond. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Habit
    Shrubs or trees, unarmed.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, petiolate; lamina with serrulate margin, 3–5-nerved from base, penninerved distally; stipules small, deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes axillary.
    Flowers
    Flower bisexual, pedicellate.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle hemispherical.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, cucullate, unguiculate, inserted below the disk.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5.
    Disc
    Disk fleshy.
    Pistil
    Ovary immersed in the disk and ± fused with it, 3(4)-locular; style 3(4)-fid.
    Fruits
    Capsule ± spherical, dehiscing septicidally into 3 cocci; exocarp thin and not fleshy.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3-gonous.
    [FTEA]

    Rhamnaceae, Marshall C. Johnston (University of Texas Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1972

    Habit
    Unarmed (or rarely armed but not in Africa) trees and shrubs, rarely scandent (as in the present species) but never a liane or twiner
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate (or opposite but not in Africa)
    Stipules
    Stipules present, rarely (never in Africa) interpetiolar
    Flowers
    Flowers bisexual, protandrous, 5-merous, in small axillary thyrses or fascicles
    Disc
    Disk massive and nearly completely surrounding the ovary Cup and disk accrescent and persistently coherent to the 3(4)-celled ovary, at maturity covering the lower sixth to half of the fruit and at dehiscence breaking away ± irregularly along with the dryish (not spongy) exocarp, the 3 remnants adhering to the 3 crustaceous 1-seeded endo-mericarps which separate completely from each other, each releasing its seed through a longitudinal ventral slit.
    Ovary
    Ovary at anthesis inferior but later by differential growth becoming at least half superior

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Arizona, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Guatemala, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Turks-Caicos Is., Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Mauritius, Rodrigues, Trinidad-Tobago

    Colubrina Rich. ex Brongn. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Mém. Fam. Rhamn.: 61 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Mém. Fam. Rhamn.: 61 (1826) nom conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Brittonia 23: 2–53 (1971), nom. conserv.
    • M.C. Jolmst. in Wrightia 3: 91–96 (1963)
    • Mém. Fam. Rhamn.: 61 (1826)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0