1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Dalbergia L.f.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Trees, free-standing or scandent shrubs or woody lianes, sometimes with branches modified as spines or climbing aids
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, rarely (not in East Africa) 1-foliolate; stipules various, often small and usually caducous; stipels absent; leaflets alternate, rarely some of them subopposite
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal and axillary, paniculate or more rarely simply racemose; bracts and bracteoles small, usually caducous
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, shortly 5-lobed, rarely with the lateral lobes reduced and thus 3-lobed; lowest lobe usually narrower and the longest, the upper pair usually broader than the others and often more united
    Corolla
    Corolla small, white to yellowish-cream, sometimes flushed mauve or purplish, often fragrant; standard usually emarginate, with variously developed claw, glabrous or with only scattered hairs; wings free, ± oblong, narrowed or auriculate at base of blade; keel-petals obtuse, united on lower side towards apex
    Stamens
    Stamens 9 or 10, all united in a sheath open above, or with the vexillary stamen free or divided into 2 subequal phalanges or sometimes more irregularly divided; anthers small, erect, basifixed with apical dehiscence
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate, with few ovules; style usually incurved and with a small terminal stigma
    Fruits
    Fruit indehiscent, usually oblong, linear or oblong-elliptic, samaroid, sometimes thickened over the seed-cavity, or sometimes (not in East Africa) thickened overall and variously shaped
    Seeds
    Seeds reniform and smooth in East Africa, elsewhere sometimes oblong or variously curved and wrinkled; hilum and rim-aril small.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The present circumscription of Dalbergieae sens. lat. contains radical changes to Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d: 233–242). In the first instance it takes a traditional view of the tribe by including genera such as Vatairea and Vataireopsis (now in the Vataireoid clade, see Figs. 1& 40) and Andira and Hymenolobium, which in Wojciechowski et al. (2004) are sister to the combined Dalbergioid clade of Lavin et al. (2001a), plus Amorpheae. The bulk of the treatment, however, recognises the cryptic Dalbergioid clade (Lavin et al., 2001a) as comprising tribe Dalbergieae sens. lat., diagnosed by the synapomorphy of aeschynomenoid root nodules. This clade includes all the genera placed in the Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d: 233– 242), the Aeschynomeneae sensu Rudd (1981) and the Adesmieae sensu Polhill (1981g: 355–356), plus subtribe Bryinae of the Desmodieae sensu Ohashi et al. (1981) as well as the genus Diphysa (tribe Robinieae sensu Polhill & Sousa (1981)).The placements of all members of the Dalbergioid clade within the classification presented here and in those of Polhill (1981d: 233–242; 1981g: 355–356), Polhill & Sousa (1981), Ohashi et al. (1981) and Rudd (1981) are listed in Fig. 40.

    Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d) contained 19 genera defined by woody habit, supposedly plesiomorphic flowers, pods with a specialised seed chamber and seeds that accumulated alkaloids. Polhill (1981d) noted that there seemed to be two centres within the Dalbergieae: one around Andira with Hymenolobium, Vatairea, Vataireopsis, Dalbergia, and Machaerium, and one around Pterocarpus. He also highlighted evidence from wood anatomy (Baretta-Kuipers, 1981) which showed that Andira, Hymenolobium, Vatairea, and Vataireopsis have coarser wood structures more typical of members of the Sophoreae than the remaining members of the Dalbergieae. The study of fruit and seedling morphology by Lima (1990) further supported these two centres within the Dalbergieae: one including Andira, Hymenolobium, Vatairea, and Vataireopsis, and the second the remaining genera. Most recently several molecular and morphological studies (e.g., Lavin et al., 2001a; Pennington et al., 2001; Wojciechowski et al., 2004) confirm that these four genera do not belong in the Dalbergioid clade. Since there is, however, still much work to be done to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of these four genera, they have been kept in tribe Dalbergieae sens. lat. in this treatment to avoid tentative placements, which might be treated by users as formal.

    The tribe Aeschynomeneae sensu Rudd (1981) contained 25 genera characterised by lomentaceous pods, although some members lack loments (e.g., Arachis, Ormocarpopsis, Diphysa spp., Ormocarpum spp., and Pictetia spp.). None of the Aeschynomeneae had previously been considered closely related to the Dalbergieae, but the work of Lavin et al. (2001a) has resolved all the ‘aeschynomenoid genera’ within the Dalbergioid clade.

    The taxonomic history of the monogeneric tribe Adesmieae sensu Polhill (1981g) is very different from that of the Dalbergieae. The Adesmieae combines the presumed plesiomorphic trait of free stamen filaments, with presence of lomentaceous pods that are supposedly derived. This combination of features suggested a taxonomically isolated position far removed from the Dalbergieae. The analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) based on molecular sequence and morphological data, however, support Adesmia (nested together with five genera of Rudd’s Aeschynomeneae) being sister to the Pterocarpus and Dalbergia clades. The neotropical genera Brya and Cranocarpus were placed together in a new subtribe Bryinae of Desmodieae in the classification of Ohashi et al. (1981). The features common to these genera are periporate pollen and glochidiate hairs or glandular trichomes. In the molecular studies of Doyle et al. (1995) and Bailey et al. (1997), Brya and Cranocarpus did not lack the intron for the chloroplast gene rpl2 nor for the open reading frame ORF184, which are characteristic of the other desmodioid genera studied. Bailey et al. (1997), therefore, suggested that Brya and Cranocarpus should be removed from the Desmodieae. Their findings were strongly corroborated by the three gene analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) which place the two genera in the Pterocarpus clade (Fig. 40).

    One further transfer has been made in the Dalbergioid clade since Rudd (1981) and Polhill & Sousa (1981). Lavin (1987) transferred Diphysa from the Robinieae to tribe Aeschynomeneae based on the absence of canavanine in the seeds, a feature consistently present in the Robinieae (Lavin, 1986). Lavin (1987) also listed 14 morphological characters that placed Diphysa with the Aeschynomeneae rather than the Robinieae. In the phylogenetic analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a), Diphysa is resolved in the Dalbergioid clade nested within the ‘transatlantic clade’ (Fig. 40), first identified by Lavin et al. (2000).

    Finally, since 1981 four new genera have been published: the Brazilian monotypic Grazielodendron (Lima, 1983b), the possibly extinct Madagascan endemic Peltiera (Labat & Du Puy, 1997), Zygocarpum, the Horn of Africa – Arabian segregate of Ormocarpum (Thulin & Lavin, 2001) and Maraniona from northern Peru (Hughes et al., 2004). Three genera have also been placed in synonymy since 1981: the Caribbean genus Belairia which is a synonym of Pictetia (Beyra-Matos & Lavin, 1999), and the genera Pachecoa and Arthrocarpum which Thulin (1999) synonymised under Chapmannia. In this treatment 49 genera and (1319) –1325–(1331) species are recognised in Dalbergieae sens. lat. (including 4 basally branching dalbergioid genera comprising c. 58 species, and (1261)–1267– (1273) species in the 45 genera of the Dalbergioid clade [Lavin et al., 2001a]).The following informal groupings of genera are based on the work of Lavin et al. (2001a): Adesmia clade: 6 genera; c. 360 species; neotropical except Zornia, which is pantropical. Pterocarpus clade: 22 genera; c. 200 species centred in the Neotropics, Pterocarpus and Stylosanthes are pantropical, Inocarpus Asian, and Chapmannia transatlantic.Dalbergia clade: 17 genera; c. 706 species which are pantropical, but centred in Africa; Weberbauerella, Soemmeringia, Pictetia and Diphysa are neotropical, Machaerium transatlantic, Dalbergia and Aeschynomene are pantropical, and Geissaspis Asian. Isolated genera: 4 genera; 58 species, neotropical except Andira, which has one amphiatlantic species.

    Thothathri (1987) subdivided Dalbergia from the Indian subcontinent into four sections based on androecium and fruit type; Carvalho (1997) treated the Brazilian species in five sections based on inflorescence and fruit types. The combined analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) place Dalbergia in the Dalbergia clade sister to Machaerium and Aeschynomene subgen. Ochopodium (Fig. 40)
    Vernacular
    nambar, palisandro, ebonywood, cocobolo, tulipwood, blackwood, rosewood, kingwood, sisam
    Habit
    Shrubs, trees and climbing lianas, some species vary in habit from scandent shrubs in dry habitats to robust lianas in humid areas
    Ecology
    Tropical rain forest to seasonally dry tropical to subtropical humid and dry forest, woodland, bushland, thicket and wooded grassland
    Distribution
    pantropical, centred in the Old World with 60-70 species in Africa (1 sp., D. ecastaphyllum (L.) Taub., reaches India), 43 spp. in Madagascar, of which 42 are endemic; about 80 species in Asia with 33 species in India (19 endemic), 44 in Indo-China, and eight in New Guinea. Two of the Asian species (D. candenatensis (Dennst.) Prain and D. densa Benth.) reach Australia; c. 60-70 spp. occur in the neotropics with 45-50 spp. in S America (centred in Amazonia) and c. 15-20 spp. in tropical Mexico to C America and the Caribbean
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae byJ.M. Lock*

    Flowers
    Flowers white or violet-purple, fragrant, in terminal or axillary and terminal panicles, rarely in cymose racemes; bracts and bracteoles caducous or subpersistent. Flowers white or violet-purple, fragrant, in terminal or axillary and terminal panicles, rarely in cymose racemes; bracts and bracteoles caducous or subpersistent.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-dentate, with upper teeth broader than the lower ones. Calyx 5-dentate, with upper teeth broader than the lower ones.
    Ovary
    Ovary stipitate, few-ovulate; style incurved; stigma small, terminal.
    Fruits
    Pod indehiscent, flat, oblong or linear, ± thickened over the seeds. Pod indehiscent, flat, oblong or linear, ± thickened over the seeds.
    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or lianes, occasionally spiny. Trees, shrubs or lianes, occasionally spiny.
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, rarely unifoliolate (not in Flora area); leaflets alternate to subopposite; stipules caducous or sometimes subpersistent. Leaves imparipinnate, rarely unifoliolate (not in Flora area); leaflets alternate to subopposite; stipules caducous or sometimes subpersistent.
    Corolla
    Petals clawed; standard circular to obovate; wings oblong-obovate; keel petals usually dorsally connate at the apex, sometimes free. Petals clawed; standard circular to obovate; wings oblong-obovate; keel petals usually dorsally connate at the apex, sometimes free.
    Stamens
    Stamens connate into a dorsally split sheath, usually the upper one free or absent or stamens in 2 bundles of 5; anthers small, erect, didymous, the thecae dehiscing by an apical slit. Stamens connate into a dorsally split sheath, usually the upper one free or absent or stamens in 2 bundles of 5; anthers small, erect, didymous, the thecae dehiscing by an apical slit.
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate, few-ovulate; style incurved; stigma small, terminal.
    Seeds
    Seed reniform, compressed; radicle inflexed. Seed reniform, compressed; radicle inflexed.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Machaerium species are widely used in forest management as shade plants and for the recovery of degraded areas; the wood of many species ( caviuna, pau ferro, santos rosewood, morado ), is hard and used for fine furniture, cabinetry, decorative veneers, panelling, pianos, flutes, axe handles and fence posts (the wood is resistant to decay); the reddish sap of some species has been used by native tribes to treat snakebite and the leaves of other species are a cocaine substitute; contact dermatitis is reported from the wood

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Free State, Iraq, Niger, Oman, Palestine

    Dalbergia L.f. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2010 Burchell [3114], Brazil K000909411
    Dec 2, 2009 Árbocz, G.F. [4866], Brazil K000909432
    Feb 1, 2007 Cheek, M. [12445], Cameroon K000436876
    Nov 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [7799], Cameroon K000008370
    Jan 1, 1998 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8371], Brazil K000909440
    Jan 1, 1997 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8051], Brazil K000909441
    Jan 1, 1997 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8200], Brazil K000909442
    Jan 1, 1997 Rodriguez, P.A. [7962], Brazil K000909443
    Mar 1, 1993 Burchell [2186], Brazil K000909406
    Jan 1, 1990 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [9100], Brazil K000909413
    Jan 1, 1986 Thomas, D.W. [2615], Cameroon K000087494
    Jan 1, 1972 Maas, P.J.M. [12947], Brazil K000909422
    Colombia 44672.000
    Maitland, T.D. [744], Cameroon K000087495
    Ducke, A. [s.n.], Brazil K000909391
    Thomas, D.W. [2526], Cameroon K000087493
    Lewis, G.P. [1568], Brazil K000909401
    Lewis, G.P. [1568], Brazil K000909402
    Du Puy, D. [M574], Madagascar 70193.000
    McWhirter, J. [170], Madagascar 31909.000
    McWhirter, J. [249], Madagascar 32183.000
    McWhirter, J. [170], Madagascar 32192.000
    de Carvalho, A.M. [2147], Brazil 54644.000
    de Carvalho, A.M. [2275], Brazil 54648.000
    Silva, J.M. [5798], Brazil K000909420
    Rocha, M.P. [3041], Brazil K000909404
    Rocha, M.P. [3041], Brazil K000909429
    Rocha, M.P. [3041], Brazil K000909430
    Rocha, M.P. [3041], Brazil K000909431
    Queiroz, L.P. [12626], Brazil K000909418
    Carvalho, A.M. [2275], Brazil K000909400
    Carvalho, A.M. [2321], Brazil K000909403
    Carvalho, A.M. [2147], Brazil K000909405
    Carvalho, A.M. [2335], Brazil K000909409
    Carvalho, A.M. [2133], Brazil K000909433
    Irwin, H.S. [2729], Brazil K000909396
    Irwin, H.S. [2729], Brazil K000909399
    Heringer, E.P. [16926], Brazil K000909407
    Heringer, E.P. [16926], Brazil K000909408
    Heringer, E.P. [16926], Brazil K000909410
    Heringer, E.P. [15079], Brazil K000909439
    Laurênio, A. [281], Brazil K000909398
    Fonseca, M.L. [1125], Brazil K000909444
    Fonseca, M.L. [1125], Brazil K000909445
    Riedel [693], Brazil K000909415
    Krukoff, B.A. [4807], Brazil K000909392
    Krukoff, B.A. [6271], Brazil K000909393
    Krukoff, B.A. [1498], Brazil K000909417
    Tschá, M.C. [263], Brazil K000909397
    Mendonça, R.C. [4255], Brazil K000909424
    Mendonça, R.C. [4255], Brazil K000909425
    Prance, G.T. [5616], Rondônia K000835017
    Prance, G.T. [14134], Brazil K000909414
    Prance, G.T. [3266], Brazil K000909416
    Prance, G.T. [5581], Brazil K000909421
    Cid Ferreira, C.A. [3671], Brazil K000909394
    Hamilton, W.D. [18], Brazil K000909438
    Meireles, J.E. [431], Brazil K000909419
    Glaziou, A. [20282], Brazil K000835077
    Barham, J. [9], Thailand K000764332
    Barham, J. [9], Thailand K000764333
    Lopes, M.A. [510], Brazil K000909423
    Hatschbach, G.G. [56566], Brazil K000909434
    Hatschbach, G.G. [67821], Brazil K000909435
    Hatschbach, G.G. [78415], Brazil K000909436
    Hatschbach, G.G. [78469], Brazil K000909437
    Hatschbach, G.G. [67628], Brazil K000909446
    Oliveira, A.R.S. [276], Brazil K000909412
    s.coll. [1681], Brazil K000909387
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000909395
    Burchell [2874], Brazil K000909426
    Burchell [9874], Brazil K000909427
    Glaziou [10663], Brazil K000909428

    First published in Suppl. Pl.: 52 (1782)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 231.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Bentham in Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 1: 544 (1865).
    • —Bentham in Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 1: 544 (1865).
    • Suppl. Pl.: 52 (1781) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Suppl. Pl.: 52 (1781), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Wood Anatomy Microscope Slides
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/