1. Family: Urticaceae Juss.
    1. Elatostema J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to Pacific.

    [FZ]

    Urticaceae, I. Friis. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Habit
    Erect annual or perennial, monoecious herbs.
    Stem
    Stems prostrate and ascending.
    Cystoliths
    Cystoliths linear.
    Leaves
    Leaves distichous, apparently alternate, sessile or very shortly petiolate, asymmetrical; stipules fused, intrapetiolar, (the presence of 2 pairs of stipules indicates that the genus has opposite leaves but one leaf of each pair is rudimentary or totally reduced).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences unisexual, axillary, sessile (in the Flora Zambesiaca area), consisting of very densely clustered flowers and surrounded by almost free bracts in the male inflorescences or by somewhat fused bracts in the female inflorescences.
    Flowers
    Male flowers 4–5-merous, tepals generally with a horn-like dorsal appendage; rudimentary ovary absent or indistinct. Female flowers with 3–5 very reduced tepals and 3 scale-like staminodes, sometimes sterile; ovary ovoid with a penicillate stigma.
    Fruits
    Achene ovoid, small, ejected by the reflexing of the staminodes.
    [FTEA]

    Urticaceae, I. Friis University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, distichous, sessile or very shortly petiolate, asymmetrical; stipules completely or partly fused, intrapetiolar (however, the presence of vestiges of 2 pairs of stipules indicates that the genus has basically opposite leaves, but one leaf of each pair is rudimentary or totally reduced), stipules of reduced leaf different in size and sometimes also in form from those of extant leaf Cystoliths linear
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences unisexual, axillary, sessile (in Flora area), consisting of very densely clustered flowers and surrounded by almost free bracts in the ♂ inflorescences or by somewhat fused bracts in the ♀ inflorescences
    Male
    Male flowers 4–5-merous, tepals generally with a horn-like dorsal appendage; rudimentary ovary poorly developed or absent
    Flowers
    Female flowers with 3–5 very reduced tepals and 3 scale-like staminodes, sometimes sterile; ovary ovoid, with penicillate stigma Male flowers 4–5-merous, tepals generally with a horn-like dorsal appendage; rudimentary ovary poorly developed or absent
    Female
    Female flowers with 3–5 very reduced tepals and 3 scale-like staminodes, sometimes sterile; ovary ovoid, with penicillate stigma
    Fruits
    Achene ovate, small, ejected by the reflexed staminodes.
    Habit
    Erect annual and perennial monoecious herbs
    Stem
    Stems prostrate and ascending, with the regularly arranged leaves forming flattened aerial shoots

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Burundi, Cameroon, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Elatostema J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 1999 Johns, R.J. [9079], New Guinea 62555.000
    Sands, M.J.S. [895], Papua New Guinea K000612494
    Sands, M.J.S. [892], Papua New Guinea K000612495
    Sands, M.J.S. [741], Papua New Guinea K000612496
    Sands, M.J.S. [1241], Papua New Guinea K000612497
    Sands, M.J.S. [1240], Papua New Guinea K000612498
    Sands, M.J.S. [1058], Papua New Guinea K000612499
    Johns, R.J. [10526], New Guinea 64376.000
    Beentje, H.J. [4736], Madagascar 60558.000
    Baker, W.J. [1199], Papua New Guinea K000612490
    Baker, W.J. [1293], Papua New Guinea K000612491
    Pius Piskaut [20235], Papua New Guinea K000612493
    Conn, B.J. et al. [5104], Papua New Guinea K000612484
    Conn, B.J. et al. [5151], Papua New Guinea K000612485

    First published in Char. Gen. Pl.: 105 (1776)

    Accepted by

    • Tseng, Y.H. & Hu, J.M. (2015). Taxonomic revision of Elatostema J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. (Urticaceae) in Taiwan Taiwania 60: 23-32.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 277.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Char. Gen. Pl.: 105 (1776) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • G.F.P. 2: 184 (1967), nom. conserv.
    • Engl. in E. & P. Pf. 3(1): 109 (1888)
    • G.P. 3:386 (1880)
    • Char. Gen. Pl.: 105 (1776)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0