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  1. Family: Gentianaceae Juss.
    1. Enicostema Blume

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa and S. Malesia, Central America, Caribbean to Venezuela.

    [FZ]

    Gentianaceae, J. Paiva & I. Nogueira. Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs rarely suffrutescent.
    Stem
    Stems erect, simple or branched at the base.
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile or narrowed into a petiole-like base, oblong-lanceolate to linear, usually the lower ones larger, entire 3-nerved.
    Flowers
    Flowers (3)4–5(6)-merous, in axillary clusters.
    Calyx
    Calyx with 3 short basal glands, irregular, rarely subregular by reduction of two lobes; tube campanulate; lobes ovate-lanceolate, obovate to subcircular or triangular-lanceolate.
    Corolla
    Corolla regular, tubuliform; lobes patent at anthesis, shorter than the tube.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted in the corolla tube; filaments with a double-hooded scale at the base; anthers erect, not twisted, acute.
    Pistil
    Ovary narrowly ellipsoid, unilocular; ovules numerous; style shorter than the ovary, subulate; stigma subcapitate.
    Fruits
    Capsule obovoid, septicidally, bivalved.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, subglobose, faveolate.
    [FTEA]

    Gentianaceae, Sileshi Nemomissa. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herb, sometimes suffrutescent
    Stem
    Stem simple or branched from the base, erect, robust, glabrous or rarely covered by minute hairs, 4-angled, ridges narrowly winged, wings minutely scabrid-denticulate
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile, opposite, usually glabrous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, very congested and proliferating (polytelic), flowers maturing acropetally
    Flowers
    Flowers (3–)5(–6)-merous, sessile, regular
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular; lobes unequal, margin scabrid-denticulate
    Corolla
    Corolla tube distinct; lobes shorter than the tube
    Stamens
    Filaments with two coronas of scales (hoods) at the base, inserted on the corolla tube; anthers oblong, versatile
    Pistil
    Ovary ellipsoid, 2-locular; style subulate; stigma ± capitate
    Fruits
    Capsule ellisoid or obovoid, dehiscing septicidally, bivalved
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, ± globose, surface reticulate-pitted to ± reticulate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Gulf States, Guyana, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cuba, Dominican Republic

    Accepted Species

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Enicostema Blume appears in other Kew resources:

    Bibliography

    First published in Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 848 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • —F.T.A. 4, 1: 563. Nom. cons.

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Raynal in Adansonia, Sér. 2, 9: 75 (1969).
    • in Bijd. Fl. Nederl. Indie14: 848 (1826).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Klack. in Fl. Madag. 168: 149 (1990)
    • Raynal in Adansonia, sér. 2, 9: 57–85 (1969)
    • G.P. 2: 807 (1876)
    • in Bijd. Fl. Nederl. Indie 14: 848 (1826)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0