1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Gardenia J.Ellis

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa to Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Shrubs, small trees or occasionally small pyrophytic subshrubs, unarmed or lateral branches becoming stoutly spinescent; young parts often glutinous; branches sometimes in whorls of 3
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or verticillate, petiolate, thin to distinctly coriaceous, with or without domatia; stipules sheathing, often truncate; buds containing wax-secreting glands
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate, hermaphrodite solitary or in few-flowered fascicles, terminal or pseudo-axillary, usually white, mostly large and elegant, strongly perfumed
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube variously shaped with the tubular part of the limb usually well-developed, truncate or with marginal or submarginal often decurrent lobes; limb sometimes unilaterally split
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube funnel-shaped or cylindrical and then usually long and narrow; lobes 5–12, contorted, overlapping to the left in bud, obtuse or rounded at the apex
    Anthers
    Anthers included or apices just exserted; pollen grains in tetrads
    Pistil
    Ovary 1-locular, with 2–9 parietal placentas; style elongate, clavate at the apex, glabrous or pubescent; stigma exserted, bilobed or not, usually many-lamellate, fruit globose or ellipsoid, with a usually thick fibrous or woody wall
    Seeds
    Seeds mostly very numerous, compressed, elliptic in outline, ± 3–10 mm. long, with thin smooth or slightly reticulate testa, stuck together into a solid mass with a pulp.
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D.M.Bridson & B.Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:3. 2003

    Habit
    Shrubs, small trees or occasionally small pyrophytic subshrubs (low, spreading suffrutices with woody underground stems), unarmed but lateral branches can appear stoutly spinescent; young parts often glutinous; branches sometimes in whorls of 3.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or verticillate, petiolate, chartaceous to distinctly coriaceous, with or without domatia; stipules sheathing, often truncate; buds containing glands secreting sticky exudate.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate, hermaphrodite, solitary or in few-flowered fascicles, terminal or pseudoaxillary, usually white, mostly large and elegant, strongly perfumed.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube variously shaped with the limb-tube usually well developed, truncate or with marginal or submarginal often decurrent lobes; limb sometimes unilaterally split.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube funnel-shaped or cylindrical and then usually long and narrow; lobes 5–12, contorted, overlapping to the left in bud, obtuse or rounded at the apex.
    Anthers
    Anthers included, apices just exserted or up to ½ exserted.
    Pollen
    Pollen grains in tetrads.
    Pistil
    Ovary 1-locular at least in the basal part, or 2-locular in G. brachythamnus with 2–9 parietal placentas; style elongate, glabrous or pubescent; pollen presenter clavate, bilobed or not, usually many-lamellate, ± exserted.
    Fruits
    Fruit globose or ellipsoid with a usually thick fibrous or woody wall.
    Seeds
    Seeds mostly very numerous (or 4 per locule in G. brachythamnus), compressed, elliptic in outline, about 3–10 mm long, with thin smooth or slightly reticulate testa, stuck together into a solid mass.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cook Is., Gilbert Is., Korea, Marquesas, Society Is., Tokelau-Manihiki, Tuamotu, Tuvalu

    Gardenia J.Ellis appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1996 Etuge, M. [2926], Cameroon K000436147
    7680.000
    Gillison, A. [NGF 25675], Papua New Guinea K000771600
    Croft [LAE 68542], Papua New Guinea K000771591
    Gillison [NGF 25024], Papua New Guinea K000771574
    Davis, A.P. [2559], Madagascar 64150.000
    Davis, A.P. [2575], Madagascar 64166.000
    Vogel [4224], Indonesia K000771582
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8278] K001125128
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8280], Myanmar K001125132
    Vogel, E.F. [3185], Indonesia K000771578
    Croft, J.R. [LAE 65491], Papua New Guinea K000771579
    Govan, G. [Cat. no. 8278], India K001125127
    van Balgooy, M. [6858], Indonesia K000771580
    Frodin [2606], Papua New Guinea K000771583
    Coode [40119], Papua New Guinea K000771593
    Ridsdale [NGF 31721], Papua New Guinea K000771592
    s.coll. [NGF 33014], Papua New Guinea K000771581
    Streimann [LAE 15829], Papua New Guinea K000771577
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132359
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132360
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8281] K001125133

    First published in Philos. Trans. 51(2): 935 (1761)

    Accepted by

    • Mouly, A., Kainulainen, K., Persson, C., Davis, A.P., Wong, K.M., Razafimandimbison, S.G. & Bremer, B. (2014). Phylogenetic structure and clade circumscriptions in the Gardenieae complex (Rubiaceae) Taxon 63: 801-818.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 3: 99. Nom. cons.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 34: 345–360 (1979).
    • N. Hallé in Fl. Gabon, no. 17, Rubiacées (2e partie): 218 (1970).
    • Keay in Bull. Jard. Bot. État 28: 40 (1958).
    • Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 51(2): 935, t. 23 (1761) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hallé in Fl. Gabon 17, Rubiacées, 2: 218 (1970), nom. conserv.
    • Keay in B.J.B.B. 28: 40 (1958)
    • in Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 51(2): 935, t. 23 (1761)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0