1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Helinus E.Mey. ex Endl.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa and Yemen..

    [FTEA]

    Rhamnaceae, Marshall C. Johnston (University of Texas Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1972

    Habit
    Climbing shrubs or woody vines or lianes (or seeming to be mere shrubs but not in East Africa)
    Tendrils
    Tendrils present (or absent but not in East Africa), circinnate, axillary
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, petiolate, the uppermost ones (subtending umbels) sometimes much reduced and bract-like; blades ovate or lanceolate, entire, at base rounded or cordate, at apex acute or rounded, essentially penninerved or vaguely 3–5-nerved at base
    Stipules
    Stipules linear, caducous
    Inflorescences
    Umbels axillary, (1–)3–12-flowered, only 1 flower or rarely 2 flowers per umbel setting fruit; peduncles usually rather slender and elongate, sometimes surpassing the subtending leaf; pedicels short to elongate, filiform
    Flowers
    Flowers 5-merous, perfect, epigynous at all stages
    Nectaries
    Cup broadly campanulate
    Calyx
    Sepals deltoid, often with very thin white margins
    Corolla
    Petals oblanceolate and somewhat concave toward the distal end, yellowish or greenish white, arcuate ascending at anthesis
    Stamens
    Stamens as long as petals
    Disc
    Disk massive, thickened around and adherent to the ovary
    Ovary
    Ovary inferior at all stages of development, 3-celled (reportedly sometimes 2-celled but not in East Africa)
    Style
    Style 3-lobed about half the length
    Fruits
    Fruit a schizocarpous capsule with a thinly coriaceous rind (mesocarp and other exterior tissues) which eventually dries; endocarp thin, crustaceous, schizocarpous, separating into 3 mericarps each of which releases its seed by a sudden opening of the ventral suture.
    [FZ]

    Rhamnaceae, R. B. Drummond. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Habit
    Shrublets or climbing shrubs; branches with coiled tendrils.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, petiolate; lamina penninerved, margin entire; stipules subulate, caducous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a 1-several-flowered pedunculate axillary umbel.
    Flowers
    Flowers bisexual, pedicellate.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle obconic, adnate to the ovary.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, cucullate, inserted at the margin of the disk.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, equalling the petals, inserted at the margin of the disk.
    Disc
    Disk flat, filling the receptacle.
    Pistil
    Ovary inferior, 3-locular;ovules 1 in each loculus; style 3-fid or obscurely 3-lobed (sometimes heterostylous).
    Fruits
    Fruit an obovoid or globose capsule, splitting into 3 cocci which at length dehisce.
    Seeds
    Seeds black, plano-convex.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Rwanda, Socotra, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Helinus E.Mey. ex Endl. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Gen. Pl.: 1102 (1840)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen.: 1102 (1840) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen.: 1102 (1840), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0