1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Lens Mill.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, NE. & E. Central Tropical Africa, Medit. to Central Asia and Pakistan.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Widely known as the Vicieae, the correct name for this tribe is Fabeae (see Greuter et al., 2000, Articles 19.4 and 18.5), since it must be based on the name of the type genus of the family, Faba Mill. (= Vicia L.). This does not reflect on the names Leguminosae and Papilionoideae (see introduction) whose use as alternative names for Fabaceae and Faboideae respectively is sanctioned in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al., 2000; Article 18.5).

    Fabeae is a well-defined tribe, forming part of the ‘temperate epulvinate series’ (Polhill, 1981a). It contains five genera, of which two (Lathyrus and Vicia) are large. The tribe as a whole is centred in the Irano-Turanian Region of the E Mediterranean. Lathyrus and Vicia, each with about 160 species, have very similar distributions centred on the Mediterranean but extending throughout Europe, N Asia and N and tropical E Africa, with secondary centres in N America and S America. One large group of species, some in Vicia and some in Lathyrus, are superficially extremely similar and can only be distinguished by technical characters of the style. This group was in the past recognised as the genus Orobus L. (Kupicha, 1981a). Lens has 4–6 species and Pisum 2 or 3. Both include important crop plants and, perhaps because of this, their taxonomy is controversial. Both are E Mediterranean genera with outlying species. The monospecific genus Vavilovia, sometimes included in Pisum, is confined to montane habitats in W Asia.

    Kupicha (1981a) was unable to suggest a closest relative of the tribe; she had previously (Kupicha, 1977) excluded Abrus (Abreae) and Cicer (Cicereae) from it. The morphological analysis of Chappill (1995) placed Fabeae (as Vicieae) in a group with Astragalinae, Galeginae, Loteae, Coronilleae, Cicereae and Trifolieae. Doyle (1995) included these subtribes and tribes (except Loteae and Coronilleae) in a clade characterised by the loss of the inverted repeat (the IRLC), with Carmichaelieae (here included in Galegeae sens. lat.), Cicereae, Galegeae, Hedysareae, some Millettieae, and Trifolieae. More recent work (Wojciechowski et al., 2000) places Fabeae at the heart of a Vicioid clade that includes Trifolieae (q.v.) and Cicereae as well as Galega — a fragment of a paraphyletic Galegeae. Fabeae (as Vicieae) appears embedded within Trifolieae as sister to Trifolium.

    In the analyses of Steele & Wojciechowski (2003) and Wojciechowski et al. (2004), Fabeae (as Vicieae) forms a clearly monophyletic group in which Pisum is sister to Lathyrus, and these two emerge as a well supported clade within a paraphyletic Vicia. A subclade of Vicia species is sister to Lens. Within Lathyrus, the cpDNA restriction site phylogeny of Asmussen & Liston (1998) agrees in general with dividing the genus into sections previously recognised using classical taxonomic methodology (e.g., Kupicha, 1983).

    The publications of the Vicieae Database Project (e.g., Allkin et al., 1983 a & b) provide basic information for the whole tribe. In this treatment the Fabeae is considered to comprise 5 genera and c. 329 species (Fig. 57).

    Mayer & Bagga (2002) find strong support for a monophyletic Lens, with L. nigricans (M.Bieb.) Godr. being basally branching, and L. odemensis Ladiz. most likely sister to L. culinaris Medik.
    Habit
    Herbs (sometimes climbing)
    Ecology
    Woodland, mediterranean shrubland and tropical altimontane grassland; weedy
    Distribution
    Mediterranean region to W Asia
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Slender suberect or spreading annual herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly paripinnate, the rhachis terminating in an awn or a simple, rarely branched, tendril, rarely imparipinnate; leaflets in 2-several pairs, entire; stipules linear to ovate, entire, dentate or semisagittate; stipels absent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, few-flowered, racemose or flowers solitary; bracts small, deciduous; bracteoles absent
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed; lobes elongate, subulate, subequal
    Corolla
    Corolla small, white, blue or violet; standard obovate or almost round, the claw short and broad; wings obliquely obovate or oblong, attached to the keel; keel shorter than the wings, somewhat inflated and longitudinally plicate, the apex acute or shortly beaked
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers uniform
    Pistil
    Ovary subsessile, 2-ovuled; style somewhat flattened, with a longitudinal row of short hairs on the inside
    Fruits
    Pod strongly compressed, 1–2-seeded, the valves mostly thin and papery
    Seeds
    Seeds distinctly compressed; funicle dilated into a thin aril, separated from mature seed.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Erect or spreading annual herbs.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually paripinnate, the rhachis terminating in a simple or rarely a branched tendril, or an awn, rarely imparipinnate; leaflets 2–several on each side of the rhachis, opposite or alternate, entire, folded flat lengthwise in bud; stipules linear to ovate or semi-sagittate, entire or dentate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, few-flowered, racemose or flowers solitary; bracts small, deciduous; bracteoles absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed; lobes subequal, subulate, at least twice as long as the tube.
    Corolla
    Corolla small, white, bluish or violet; standard obovate to almost round, cuneate to the base; wings oblong or obovate, adnate to the keel; keel shorter than the wings.
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers uniform.
    Pistil
    Ovary subsessile, 2-ovuled; style somewhat flattened, distally pubescent on the inner side.
    Fruits
    Pod strongly compressed, 1–2-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds lenticular, compressed.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    The importance of L. culinaris as a cultivated crop - and the search for wild relatives - has led to numerous taxonomic studies and often to conflicting conclusions. Lens culinaris (lentil) is a major food (pulse) crop and is the only cultivated species in the genus; also used for starch extracted from seeds, flour and dhal; species are used as fodder, green manure and for medicine

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Ethiopia, France, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Madeira, Morocco, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Western Sahara, Yugoslavia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Altay, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Galápagos, Germany, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Jawa, Kenya, Krasnoyarsk, Libya, Mauritius, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, New Guinea, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Rodrigues, Romania, Réunion, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tibet, Ukraine, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Lens Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Rico, L. [1695], Armenia K000297329

    First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • M.E. Ferguson et al. in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 133: 41–59 (2000).
    • Gard. Dict. abr. ed. 4 (1754) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gard. Dict., Abridg. ed. 4 (1754), nom. conserv .

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0