1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Petunia Juss.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Southern America..

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Ovary
    Ovary subsessile, ovoid, 2-locular; ovules numerous in each locule on a placenta adnate to the dorsal line of the dissepiment, anatropous.
    Style
    Style slender.
    Stigma
    Stigma minute, capitate, slightly grooved or obsoletely 2-lobed at the tip, included
    Note
    Petunia axillaris (Lam.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (Nicotiana axillaris Lam.; Petunia nyctaginiflora Juss.), the “large white petunia”, as well as Petunia integrifolia (Hook.) Schinz & Thell. and various hybrids (particularly the polymorphic Petunia hybrida Hort. ex Vilm.-Andr.), the “common garden petunia”, are grown in gardens in the Flora Zambesiaca area. P. axillaris differs from P. integrifolia (treated below) chiefly in the tall, relatively stout and commonly erect habit, rather thick leaves and white corolla with narrow tube 3–5 times as long as the calyx (Pedro 3122 (LMA) Mozambique, Maputo, Jardim Tunduru (Vasco da Gama)).
    Distribution
    A genus closely allied to Nicotiana, with c. 40 species widely distributed in warm and temperate regions of both hemispheres. Mostly centred in South America from Minas Gerais (Brazil) and southern Bolivia southwards to eastern Patagonia (Argentina), with
    Habit
    Herbs or occasionally shrubs, erect to sprawling, with varied indumentum, often viscid and glandular-pubescent. Herbs or occasionally shrubs, erect to sprawling, with varied indumentum, often viscid and glandular-pubescent
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, alternate, the upper ones, near the inflorescence, in pairs and appearing opposite, sessile or shortly petiolate, entire, with glandular hairs; minor leaves absent. Leaves solitary, alternate, the upper ones, near the inflorescence, in pairs and appearing opposite, sessile or shortly petiolate, entire, with glandular hairs; minor leaves absent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences consisting of one flower usually arising from a pair of ± equal, foliaceous bracts, but often appearing to be arranged in short, terminal pseudoracemes; pedicel articulated at the base. Inflorescences consisting of one flower usually arising from a pair of ± equal, foliaceous bracts, but often appearing to be arranged in short, terminal pseudoracemes; pedicel articulated at the base
    Flowers
    Flowers large and showy (elsewhere sometimes minute), somewhat zygomorphic. Flowers large and showy (elsewhere sometimes minute), somewhat zygomorphic
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate or cylindric-salviform, strongly 10-nerved, deeply divided to near the base, the laciniae often ± foliaceous, narrow, oblong-spathulate, with valvate aestivation; in fruit somewhat enlarged, equalling or surpassing it. Calyx campanulate or cylindric-salviform, strongly 10-nerved, deeply divided to near the base, the laciniae often ± foliaceous, narrow, oblong-spathulate, with valvate aestivation; in fruit somewhat enlarged, equalling or surpassing it
    Corolla
    Corolla varying in colour from white or pale yellow to deep red-purple or violet to bluish, often variegated, infundibuliform or salviform, occasionally tubular, simple (elsewhere sometimes double); tube long, terete or ventricose, nearly or quite straight, seated loosely in the calyx, the mouth open; limb shorter than the tube, broad, plicate, patent, unequally and sinuately 5-lobed to deeply fringed (in some cultigens elsewhere), the lobes with induplicate aestivation. Corolla varying in colour from white or pale yellow to deep red-purple or violet to bluish, often variegated, infundibuliform or salviform, occasionally tubular, simple (elsewhere sometimes double); tube long, terete or ventricose, nearly or quite straight, seated loosely in the calyx, the mouth open; limb shorter than the tube, broad, plicate, patent, unequally and sinuately 5-lobed to deeply fringed (in some cultigens elsewhere), the lobes with induplicate aestivation
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, ± equal or unequal, often one shorter than the other 4, or didynamous, glabrous, inserted at ± the same level in the corolla tube, commonly in the basal half, included or elsewhere exserted; filaments slender, somewhat expanded towards the base, sometimes geniculate near the insertion; anthers all fertile or elsewhere one of them occasionally sterile, deeply cordate, attached on the lower part of the back or at the base between the ovoid thecae, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Stamens 5, ± equal or unequal, often one shorter than the other 4, or didynamous, glabrous, inserted at ± the same level in the corolla tube, commonly in the basal half, included or elsewhere exserted; filaments slender, somewhat expanded towards the base, sometimes geniculate near the insertion; anthers all fertile or elsewhere one of them occasionally sterile, deeply cordate, attached on the lower part of the back or at the base between the ovoid thecae, dehiscing by longitudinal slits
    Disc
    Disk annular, fleshy, irregularly continuous or laterally sub-bilobed, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary. Disk annular, fleshy, irregularly continuous or laterally sub-bilobed, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary
    Pistil
    Ovary subsessile, ovoid, 2-locular; ovules numerous in each locule on a placenta adnate to the dorsal line of the dissepiment, anatropous; style slender; stigma minute, capitate, slightly grooved or obsoletely 2-lobed at the tip, included.
    Fruits
    Fruit capsular, ovoid, sessile, membranous, 2-locular, with a central placenta ultimately detached, apically dehiscent by 2 often short, septicidal slits, the 2 dry valves entire or 2-fid. Fruit capsular, ovoid, sessile, membranous, 2-locular, with a central placenta ultimately detached, apically dehiscent by 2 often short, septicidal slits, the 2 dry valves entire or 2-fid
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, minute, scarcely compressed, ± globose, prismatic or reniform; testa somewhat leathery, foveolate-reticulate; embryo ± straight or curved, in the axis of the fleshy endosperm. Seeds numerous, minute, scarcely compressed, ± globose, prismatic or reniform; testa somewhat leathery, foveolate-reticulate; embryo ± straight or curved, in the axis of the fleshy endosperm
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves usually alternate, occasionally upper ones opposite
    Flowers
    Flowers usually solitary, arising from pair of small leaves or bracts; pedicels erect, occasionally deflexed in fruit
    Calyx
    Calyx with 5(–6) spreading calyx lobes
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform or salver-shaped with lower cylindrical tube flaring above and often terminating in 5 lobes of equal size which become partially reflexed
    Stamens
    Stamens usually subequal with the fifth being smaller or larger, included; filaments fused to lower half to third of corolla tube, filiform above becoming thicker below at point of fusion, glabrous; anthers shortly elongate, dorsifixed and somewhat versatile, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, often visible in corolla throat, all fertile
    Ovary
    Ovary 2-locular, enclosed basally by annular lobed disc; ovules numerous; style filiform becoming thicker towards the ovary and stigma; stigma bilobed, forked or capitate, often visible in corolla throat
    Fruits
    Fruit a smooth, many-seeded, bivalvate, septicidal capsule often dehiscing apically by two shortish slits
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, globular to reniform, tiny, foveolate-reticulate.
    Note
    Petunia is often considered to be composed of only three herbaceous species, though some authors recognise as many as 40 species while Hunziker’s (2001) latest treatment described 34 species. All but P. parviflora Juss. inhabit southern South America while this latter species displays a disjunct distribution, growing in the USA, Mexico and Cuba and well as being native in Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina (Hunziker, 2001). This is another genus which is now widely cultivated throughout the world for its ornamental value.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Paraguay, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Cape Verde, Cuba, Illinois, India, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, New South Wales, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Trinidad-Tobago, Zimbabwe

    Petunia Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2: 215 (1803)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 54 (2001).
    • Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 46: 1–72 (1911).
    • R.E. Fries in Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 46: 1–72 (1911).
    • Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2: 215, t. 47 (1803) nom. conserv.
    • in Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2: 215, t. 47 (1803) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen. Solanaceae: 54 (2001)
    • Sink, Petunia 9: 3–9 (1984);
    • K. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl. Stockholm 46: 3–72 (1911);
    • Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist. Par., 2, 215, t. 47 (1803), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0