1. Family: Caryophyllaceae Juss.
    1. Silene L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic & Temp. to Tropical Mountains.

    [FTEA]

    Caryophyllaceae, W. B. Turrill. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1956

    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves exstipulate, not or only very slightly connate at the base
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences cymose, panicled, spicate, aggregated-capitulate or reduced even to a solitary flower; no calycine bracts
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular or dilated, 5 teeth, 10 main veins
    Corolla
    Petals 5, with a long narrow claw and an entire or usually a bilobed limb
    Stamens
    Stamens 5 + 5 in male or hermaphrodite flowers or abnormally reduced in number
    Pistil
    Ovary 3- to 5-locular at least in the lower part though usually unilocular in the upper part; styles 2 to 5 but generally 3, filiform
    Fruits
    Capsules dehiscing generally by 3 or 6 teeth or valves.
    [FZ]

    Caryophyllaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, reniform or subspherical, sometimes winged.
    Habit
    Herbs or shrublets.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, sometimes slightly connate at the base, exstipulate.
    Flowers
    Flowers in cymose, paniculate, spicate or aggregate-capitulate inflorescences, or rarely single, unisexual or bisexual.
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular or dilated, 5-toothed, with 10 principal veins.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, with a long narrow claw and a dilated, bifid or rarely simple or laciniate lamina, often with scales at the base of the limb.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5 + 5 in male or bisexual flowers or abnormally reduced.
    Pistil
    Ovary 3–5-locular below but usually 1-locular in the upper part or 1-locular throughout, multiovulate; styles (2) 3 (5), filiform.
    Fruits
    Capsule many-seeded, opening from the apex by 3 or 6 teeth or valves.
    [FTEA]

    Caryophyllaceae, W. B. Turrill. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1956

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes suffruticose
    Leaves
    Leaves exstipulate, not or only slightly connate at the base
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences cymose, paniculate, secund, or reduced to a single flower; no calycine bracts
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular or dilated, 5 teeth, 8–10 main veins
    Corolla
    Petals 5, with a long narrow claw and a bilobed limb
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite or dioeciously unisexual
    Stamens
    Stamens 5 + 5 in male or hermaphrodite flowers
    Pistil
    Ovary (and capsule) unilocular; styles 3 or 5, free
    Fruits
    Capsules dehiscing by 6 or 10 teeth or valves.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Gulf States, Hawaii, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Svalbard, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Sahara, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, Bermuda, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, El Salvador, Falkland Is., Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Mauritius, New Caledonia, Norfolk Is., Paraguay, Prince Edward I., Réunion, St.Helena, Uruguay, Venezuela

    Silene L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1847 Ecklon. [s.n.] K000313122
    Rico, L. [1956], Morocco K000564915

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 416 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 1: 138.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 193 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 416 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 193 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. 416 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0