1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Withania Pauquy

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Europe, Africa and Asia-Temperate..

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Ovary
    Ovary 2-locular, the ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous in each locule on a placenta adnate to the dissepiment.
    Style
    Style as long as or slightly longer than the filaments, subulate, straight.
    Stigma
    Stigma capitate, sometimes shortly and widely 2-lobed at the tip, included or scarcely exserted
    Fruits
    Fruit baccaceous, ± sessile, globose, juicy, 2-locular Fruit baccaceous, ± sessile, globose, juicy, 2-locular.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, compressed, sub-orbicular or ± reniform; testa somewhat leathery, reticulate-foveate; embryo strongly curved, flattened, in the fleshy and scanty endosperm; radicle long, ± terete; cotyledons slender, semi-terete or linear in outline. Seeds numerous, compressed, sub-orbicular or ± reniform; testa somewhat leathery, reticulate-foveate; embryo strongly curved, flattened, in the fleshy and scanty endosperm; radicle long, ± terete; cotyledons slender, semi-terete or linear in outline.
    Disc
    Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, subentire to crenulate, slightly glandular, sometimes none. Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, subentire to crenulate, slightly glandular, sometimes none
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular, the ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous in each locule on a placenta adnate to the dissepiment; style as long as or slightly longer than the filaments, subulate, straight; stigma capitate, sometimes shortly and widely 2-lobed at the tip, included or scarcely exserted.
    Note
    A genus allied to Physalis, with c. 10 species widely distributed in warm and temperate regions of the Old World extending from Mediterranean Europe southwards to the Cape of South Africa, and eastwards from the Canary and Cape Verde Islands through the Mediterranean region and Arabia to India and Sri Lanka. Hunziker, loc. cit. (2001), includes a further 9 species formerly in Physaliastrum Makino from more humid areas in eastern Asia.
    Habit
    Shrubs or perennial herbs, ± clothed with branched hairs to subglabrous. Shrubs or perennial herbs, ± clothed with branched hairs to subglabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, alternate, the upper ones usually in pairs (or whorls of 3), one larger than the others, appearing opposite (or verticillate), petiolate, entire to lobed. Leaves solitary, alternate, the upper ones usually in pairs (or whorls of 3), one larger than the others, appearing opposite (or verticillate), petiolate, entire to lobed
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of few–several flowers in axillary fascicles, rarely reduced to one flower; pedicels short or obsolete, often drooping in fruit. Inflorescences of few–several flowers in axillary fascicles, rarely reduced to one flower; pedicels short or obsolete, often drooping in fruit
    Flowers
    Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual or elsewhere rarely unisexual in dioecious plants. Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual or elsewhere rarely unisexual in dioecious plants
    Calyx
    Calyx almost as long as the corolla tube, campanulate, 5(7)-fid; lobes as long as or shorter than the tube, subulate upwards, not conniving at the apex, with valvate aestivation; in fruit ± enlarged and bladdery-inflated simulating Physalis, closely or loosely concealing it, reticulate, papyraceous, scarious or elsewhere coriaceous. Calyx almost as long as the corolla tube, campanulate, 5(7)-fid; lobes as long as or shorter than the tube, subulate upwards, not conniving at the apex, with valvate aestivation; in fruit ± enlarged and bladdery-inflated simulating Physalis, closely or loosely concealing it, reticulate, papyraceous, scarious or elsewhere coriaceous
    Corolla
    Corolla white to yellow or ± greenish, campanulate, often narrowly so, sometimes infundibular or sub-rotate, hairy; tube hairy inside; limb broad, (3)5(7)-fid or -lobed, somewhat reflexed, with valvate aestivation. Corolla white to yellow or ± greenish, campanulate, often narrowly so, sometimes infundibular or sub-rotate, hairy; tube hairy inside; limb broad, (3)5(7)-fid or -lobed, somewhat reflexed, with valvate aestivation
    Stamens
    Stamens 5(7), ± equal, inserted near the base of the corolla tube, included or scarcely exserted; filaments subulate often from a flat-expanded base, glabrous or minutely glandular-scaly at the base and with fringes on the back; anthers ± oblong in outline, straight, as long as or shorter than the filaments, free or sometimes conniving, attached on the lower part of the back or at the base between the thecae, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Stamens 5(7), ± equal, inserted near the base of the corolla tube, included or scarcely exserted; filaments subulate often from a flat-expanded base, glabrous or minutely glandular-scaly at the base and with fringes on the back; anthers ± oblong in outline, straight, as long as or shorter than the filaments, free or sometimes conniving, attached on the lower part of the back or at the base between the thecae, dehiscing by longitudinal slits
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Habit
    Annual or perennial shrubs and herbs; hairs eglandular, usually branched, occasionally simple
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or in unequal pairs
    Flowers
    Flowers occasionally solitary, usually in few- to many-flowered fascicles, axillary, usually hermaphrodite, occasionally dioecious; pedicels short to almost absent
    Calyx
    Calyx usually actinomorphic, campanulate to urceolate-campanulate, with 5–6 lobes
    Corolla
    Corolla usually actinomorphic, broadly campanulate, with 5–6 often recurved lobes
    Stamens
    Stamens included or slightly exserted; filaments fused to lower part of corolla tube where enlarged and flattened, usually glabrous, slender where free; anthers equal, oblong, bilobed, basifixed by filaments inserted between thecae, sometimes convergent around stigma
    Ovary
    Ovary superior, glabrous, bilocular, ovules numerous; disc annular, smooth, often crenulate, occasionally absent; style usually glabrous; stigma discoidcapitate, bilobed
    Fruits
    Fruit a berry, mature pericarp thin and translucent, enclosed by enlarged and inflated accrescent chartaceous urceolate calyx, with the mouth wide open, narrow or almost completely closed
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, compressed, with or without sclerotic granules.
    Note
    Hepper (1991) considered Withania to be composed of ten species. Hunziker (cf. 2001) recently enlarged this genus by adding nine mesophytes formerly included in the genera Mellissia Hook. and Physaliastrum Makino, thereby extending the geographical range of this genus from the Canary Islands in the west, through Asia to China and Japan in the east. Symon (1991) also emphasised the closeness of Mellissia (a critically endangered endemic of St Helena) to Withania, but retained them as distinct genera. The genus Withania is close to Physalis, with which it is often confused, and like the latter also belongs to the subfamily Solanoideae. Withania is one of the two Solanaceous genera which D’Arcy (in Solanaceae 3: 105, 1991) considered to be truly Old World and which Symon (in Solanaceae 3: 146, 1991) considered to be a distinctive African Gondwanan element.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Baleares, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Greece, Gulf States, India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Primorye, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Mauritius, New South Wales, Réunion, South Australia

    Withania Pauquy appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Belladone: 14 (1825)

    Accepted by

    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 248. Nom. cons.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 264 (2001).
    • Hawkes, Lester, Nee & Estrada (eds.), Solanaceae III: 211–229 (1991).
    • Hepper in Hawkes, Lester, Nee & Estrada (eds.), Solanaceae III: 211–229 (1991).
    • Belladone: 14 (1825), nom. conserv.
    • Withania Pauquy, Belladone: 14 (1825) , nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen. Solanaceae: 264–270 (2001);
    • Solanaceae III: 211–227 (1991)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 453 (1852);
    • Diss. Belladone: 14 (1825), nom. conserv.;

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0