1. Family: Annonaceae Juss.
    1. Xylopia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.


    Annonaceae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Trees, shrubs or shrublets, not climbing, with simple or rarely forked hairs.
    Buds triquetrous or conic.
    Flowers bisexual, solitary or in cymes or fascicles, axillary, pedicellate or sessile, often (? always) fragrant.
    Bracteoles (1) 2–5, caducous or persistent.
    Sepals 3, valvate, much shorter than the petals, ± united.
    Petals 6, free, in two subequal or unequal whorls, both valvate, thick, erect or spreading, flat or triquetrous and often linear above, broad and ± concave at the base, the inner ones sometimes with a fleshy pad covering the reproductive parts.
    Stamens ?, linear, with thecae extrorse, septate and connective-prolongation, capitate, the outer and inner ones often flattened and staminodial; filaments articulated, the bases sometimes united, enclosing the gynoecium.
    Carpels ? to few (rarely solitary), free, ovoid-cylindric or ± flattened, with several 1-seriate or biseriate ovules; styles cylindric or narrowly clavate, aggregated.
    Ripe carpels dehiscent, ± succulent, cylindric or obovoid, 1–8-seeded.
    Seeds vertical to horizontal, collateral or biseriate; aril present (sometimes inconspicuous).

    Annonaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Trees, shrubs or subshrubs, only rarely climbing, glabrous or with an indumentum of simple or rarely 2-branched hairs
    Flowers hermaphrodite, solitary, fasciculate or in cymes, axillary, sessile or stalked; buds ovoid, subglobose or more usually narrowly conical and 3-angled; bracteoles 1–5, deciduous or persistent
    Sepals 3, valvate, ± united, very much smaller than the external petals
    Petals 6 in 2 whorls of 3, both valvate, subequal or the outer ones larger, free, thick, flattened or angular, enlarged and ± concave at the base, the inner petals sometimes with a fleshy part covering the stamens and gynoecium
    Stamens numerous, linear, the outer and inner ones often flattened and staminodial; filaments articulated, sometimes partly united at the base and enclosing the gynoecium; anther-cells extrorse,transversely septate; connective-prolongation capitate
    Carpels few to many or rarely solitary, free, ovoid-oblong or flattened, with 1–many 1–2-seriate ovules; styles linear or narrowly clavate, aggregated
    Monocarps dehiscent or indehiscent, obovoid to cylindric, sessile or mostly stipitate, 1–8(–many)-seeded, ± fleshy
    Seeds vertical to horizontal, collateral or 2-seriate; aril present but often inconspicuous.



    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Namibia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Xylopia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9785], Cameroon K000105616
    Harris, D.J. [2622], Central African Republic 63038.000
    Harris, D.J. [2622], Central African Republic 63053.000
    Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10629], Cameroon K000105618

    First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1250 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Johnson, D.M. & Murray, N.A. (2018). A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Tropical Africa PhytoKeys 97: 1-252.


    Kew Bulletin
    • Fero, M., Aedo, C., Cabezas, F. & Velayos, M. (2014). Taxonomic revision of Neostenanthera (Annonaceae). Syst. Bot. 39: 17 – 30.
    • Stone, R. G. (2013). Warneckea cordiformis sp. nov. (Melastomataceae — Olisbeoideae) from a coastal dry forest in northern Mozambique. Nordic J. Bot. 31: 113 –117.
    • Botermans, M., Sosef, M. S. M., Chatrou, L. W. & Couvreur, T. L. P. (2011). Revision of the African genus Hexalobus (Annonaceae). Syst. Bot. 36: 33 – 48.
    • Timberlake, J.,Goyder,D.,Crawford,F.,Burrows, J., Clarke, G. P., Luke,Q., Matimele,H., Müller,T., Pascal, O., de Sousa, C. & Alves, T. (2011). Coastal dry forests in northern Mozambique. Pl. Ecol. Evol. 144: 126 – 137.
    • Burrows, J. E. & Burrows, S. M. (2010). Rubiaceae: a new species of Didymosalpinx and a new species of Oxyanthus from Mozambique and Tanzania.Bothalia 40(2): 200 – 204.
    • Couvreur, T. L. P. (2009). Monograph of the syncarpous African genera Isolona and Monodora (Annonaceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 87: 1 – 150.
    • Couvreur, T. L. P., van der Ham, R. W. J.M., Mbele, Y. M. &Mbago, F. M. (2009). Molecular and morphological characterization of a new monotypic genus of Annonaceae, Mwasumbia, from Tanzania. Syst. Bot. 34: 266 – 276.
    • Versteegh, C. P. C. & Sosef, M. S. M. (2007). Revision of the African genus Annickia (Annonaceae). Syst. Geogr. Plants 77: 91 – 118.
    • Couvreur, T. L. P., Gereau, R. E., Wieringa, J. J. & Richardson, J. E. (2006). Description of four new species of Monodora and Isolona (Annonaceae) from Tanzania and an overview of Tanzanian Annonaceae diversity. Adansonia 28: 243 – 266.
    • Luke, Q. (2005). Annotated checklist of the plants of the Shimba Hills, Kwale District, Kenya. J. E. African Nat. Hist. Soc. 94: 5 – 120.
    • Burgess, N. D., Salehe, J., Doggart, N., Clarke, G. P., Gordon, I., Sumbi, P. & Rodgers, A. (2004). Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa. In: R. A. Mittermeier, P. R. Gil, R. Hoffmann, J. Pilgrim, T. Brooks, C. G. Mittermeier, J. Lamoreux & G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds), Hotspots revisited: Earth’s biologically richest and most endangered ecosystems: 231 – 239. Conservation International,Washington, D. C., and Cemex, Mexico City.
    • Johnson, D. M., Mwasumbi, L. B. & Mbago, F. M. (1999). New species of Xylopia and Uvaria (Annonaceae) from Tanzania. Novon 9: 55 – 60.
    • Burgess, N. D., Clarke, G. P. & Rogers, W. A. (1998). Coastal forests of eastern Africa: status, endemism patterns and their potential causes. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 64: 337 – 367.
    • Clarke, G. P. (1998). A new regional centre of endemism in Africa. In: C. R. Huxley, J. M. Lock & D. F. Cutler (eds), Chorology, taxonomy&ecology of the floras of Africa and Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hawthorne, W. D. (1993). East African coastal forest botany. In: J. C. Lovett & S. K. Wasser (eds), Biogeography and ecology of the rain forests of eastern Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • Burgess, N. D., Mwasumbi, L. B., Hawthorne,W. J., Dickinson, A. & Doggett, R. A. (1992). Preliminary assessment of the distribution, status and biological importance of coastal forests in Tanzania. Biol. Conservation 62: 205 – 218.
    • Sayer, J. A., Harcourt, C. S. & Collins, N. M. (eds). (1991). The conservation atlas of tropical forests: Africa. IUCN and Simon & Schuster, New York.
    • Maas, P. J. M., van Heusden, E. C. H., Koek-Noorman, van Setten, A. K. & Westra, L. Y. T. (1986). Studies in Annonaceae. VII. New species from the Neotropics and miscellaneous notes. Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Ser. C 89(3): 249 – 278.
    • Burkill, H. M. (1985). The useful plants of West tropical Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1971). Annonaceae. In: E. Milne-Redhead & R. M. Polhill (eds), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London.
    • Le Thomas, A. (1969). 16: Annonacées. In: A. Aubréville (ed.), Flore du Gabon. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Robson, N. K. B. (1960). Annonaceae. In A. W. Exell & H. Wild (eds), Flora Zambesiaca 1 (1): 104 – 149. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London.
    • Engler, A. & Diels, L. (1901). VI. Anonaceae. In: A. Engler (ed.), Monographien afrikanischer Pflanzenfamilien und Gattungen. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.
    • Dunal, M. F. (1817). Monographie de la famille des Anonacées. Treuttel & Würtz, Paris.
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Engl. & Diels Monogr. Afr. Annonac. 57 (1901).
    • —F.T.A. 1: 29
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Syst. Nat. ed. 10: 1250 (1759) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Syst. Nat., ed. 10: 1241, 1250 & 1378 (1759), nom. conserv.


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