1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Bromus L.
      1. Bromus sterilis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe, Medit. to Central Asia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; culms solitary, or caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 15-100 cm long; 3-5 -noded. Leaf-sheaths hispid. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-4 mm long; erose. Leaf-blades 5-20 cm long; 2-7 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface pilose.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; effuse; nodding; 5-25 cm long. Primary panicle branches drooping; simple; 2-10 cm long; bearing 1(-3) fertile spikelets on each lower branch. Panicle branches flexuous; scaberulous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 20-35 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 20-35 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; gaping. Lower glume linear; 5-15 mm long; 0.6-0.7 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 7.5-20 mm long; 0.7-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 8-25 mm long; chartaceous; much thinner on margins; without keel, or keeled; lightly keeled; 7 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; incised 0.1-0.2 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; 15-40 mm long overall; limb scabrous. Palea 0.8 length of lemma. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 0.5-2 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; linear; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north and Macaronesia. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, China, and eastern Asia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: north-central. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, and southeast USA. South America: Caribbean and southern South America.
    Reference
    Bromeae. Acedo 1996.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Egypt

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Baleares, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Baltic States, British Columbia, California, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Falkland Is., Finland, Haiti, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Jamaica, Japan, Kentucky, Korea, Madeira, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Rhode I., Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia

    Bromus sterilis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sintenis, P.E.E. [888] K000913686
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 91], United Kingdom K000914545
    Tenore, M. [s.n.] K000913687

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 77 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Saarela, J.M., Peterson, P.M. & Váldes-Reyna, J. (2014). A taxonomic revision of Bromus (Poaceae: Pooideae: Bromeae) in México and Central America Phytotaxa 185(1): 1-147.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Meyer, F.K. (2011). Beiträge zur Flora von Albanien Haussknechtia, Beih. 15: 1-220.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0