1. Family: Bixaceae Kunth
    1. Genus: Bixa L.
      1. Bixa orellana L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to S. Tropical America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders and as a food additive.

    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 0 - 2500 m.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    Distribution
    Native and cultivated in Colombia.
    Habit
    Shrub.
    Vernacular
    Urucú, eroyá, uñañé, unucú, achoote, woukou.
    [FWTA]

    Bixaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    An introduced shrub; sometimes subspontaneous.
    [FZ]

    Bixaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree up to 8 m. tall; branches and rhachis of the inflorescence covered with rusty scales.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 7.5–24 x 4–16 cm., ovate, apex long-acuminate, base cordate or truncate, densely scaly beneath at first, later glabrescent, 5-nerved from the base, petiole up to 12 cm. long, thickened at the base and apex.
    Flowers
    Flowers in terminal 8–50-flowered panicles or corymbs; bracts 5–10 mm. long, caducous; pedicels 8–10 mm. long, red-scaly, apex thickened and with 5–6 sessile glands.
    Calyx
    Sepals 10–12 mm. long, purplish, scaly, obovate, concave, blunt.
    Corolla
    Petals 5–7, unequal, obovate, obtuse or refuse, pinkish-white.
    Anthers
    Anthers violet.
    Ovary
    Ovary globose, with dense, red-blotched bristles; style 1.2–1.5 cm. long; stigma-lobes very short.
    Fruits
    Capsule narrowly ovoid, acute, densely covered with stiff, slender bristles, opening to the base by two valves.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 4 mm. long, numerous, obovoid-angular; testa covered with minute, red, sessile glands.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Arbusto, arbolito, árbol
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Bixaceae, D. M. Bridson. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree l–9(–15) m. tall; young branches densely covered with rust-coloured peltate scales, becoming glabrescent with age.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate; blades ovate, 5–25 cm. long, 3.3–16.5 cm. wide, apex long acuminate, base cordate or less often truncate (very rarely obtuse), very young leaves with rust-coloured sessile scales beneath, soon becoming glabrescent or glabrous, with 5–6 pairs of lateral nerves, the second pair always arising from the base together with the first pair, prominent beneath; petiole slender, 1.2–13 cm. long, distinctly thickened at the base and apex.
    Stipules
    Stipules ± lanceolate, 0.4–1.5 cm. long, leaving a very shallow scale-like scar with 2 sessile glands.
    Inflorescences
    Panicles or corymbs 8–50-flowered; pedicels 4–12 mm. long, thickened towards apex, densely covered with rusty-red peltate scales; bracts lanceolate to narrowly obovate, 4–7(–10) mm. long, soon caducous, leaving a scale-like scar.
    Receptacle
    Receptacles with (4–)5(–6) pale shining glands, variable in size.
    Calyx
    Sepals purplish, ovate, concave, 8–12 mm. long, obtuse or rounded, with rust-coloured sessile scales outside.
    Corolla
    Petals white with light red veins and oblong dots or mauve or bright pink, unequal, obovate, 1.5–3 cm. long, 0.8–2 cm. wide, obtuse to rounded.
    Stamens
    Filaments 8–14 mm. long; anthers violet or red to purple, 1–1.2 mm. long.
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid or subglobose, 2.25–3 mm. wide, covered with dense red blotched bristles; style 12–15 mm. long, thickened towards the apex, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Capsule variable in shape and colour, rounded with an abrupt short acuminate apex or elongate-ovate with a long acuminate apex, (l.4–)2–4.5 cm. long, (l.7–)2–4 cm. wide, sometimes with a short stipe up to 4 mm. long, densely covered with red to brown stiff bristles, variable in length (there is also a variety with smooth capsules which does not occur in Africa); endocarp detaching, membranous and shiny.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, red-brown, obovoid-angular, 4–5 mm. long; testa studded with minute red glands; funicles 2–3 mm. long, with a disc-shaped apex.
    Habitat
    Cultivated, sometimes naturalized; 30–1750 m.
    Distribution
    K4 K7 T3 T4 T6 U Z commonly cultivated throughout the tropics
    [UPB]
    Food Additives
    Used as a condiment (Pérez Arbeláez 1996).
    Tannins Dyestuffs
    Used as a colorant in cosmetics (Rugeles Chacón et al. 2012, Tapasco et al. 2015). Seeds - Orange dye obtained from the seeds id used to dye basketry (Linares 1994).
    Unspecified Materials Chemicals
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Central African Repu, Chad, Christmas I., Congo, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Galápagos, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Liberia, Mauritius, Mozambique, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Samoa, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Anatto
    Spanish
    Achiote, achiote rojo, achiote amarillo, onoto, achote de monte, unucú, azafrán de la tierra, achote, bija, anatto, anatta.

    Bixa orellana L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2014 Wardi [BOHK 504], Indonesia K000734742
    Dec 8, 2006 Clunies-Ross, C. [CCR141], Vanuatu K000036917
    Oct 24, 1996 Duarte, A.P. [8818], Brazil K000973077
    Jan 1, 1994 Dubs, B. [1623], Brazil K000973064
    Feb 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1182], Brazil K000973066
    Jan 1, 1987 Etuge, M. [234], Cameroon K000105913
    Jan 1, 1987 Etuge, M. [221], Cameroon K000105912
    Jan 1, 1987 Balée, W.L. [801], Brazil K000973065
    Jan 1, 1986 Plowman, T. [8278], Brazil K000973063
    Jan 1, 1982 Lasseigne, A.A. [P22589], Brazil K000973069
    Jan 1, 1966 Prance, G.T. [1630], Brazil K000973070
    Tinsley [4895], Ghana 16581.000
    Burchell [5626], Brazil K000973074
    Burchell [7274], Brazil K000973075
    Burchell [1079], Brazil K000973076
    Carvalho, A.M. [263], Brazil K000973067
    Blanchet [3111], Brazil K000973072
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000973073
    Mambo, P. [9], Cameroon K000105915
    Mambo, P. [9], Cameroon K000105916
    Lindman, C.A.M. [3159], Brazil K000973079
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1067], India K001110906
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1067], Malaysia K001110907
    Silva, E.S. [R.5811], Brazil K000973068
    Gardner [3569], Brazil K000973078
    Gardner [3569], Brazil K000973080
    Gust, O.A. [1500], Brazil K000973071
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1067], India K001110909
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1067] K001110910
    Telfair, C. [Cat. no. 1067], Mauritius K001110908

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 512 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lejoly, J., Ndjele, L. & Geerinck, D. (2008). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 24: 1-37.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Oliveira-Filho, A.T. (2006). Catálogo das Árvores nativas de Minas Gerais: 1-423. Editora UFLA, Lavas, Brasil.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 36.
    • —F.T.A. 1: 114
    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
    • Tapasco, J., et al. (2015). Impactos económicos del cambio climático en Colombia: especies nativas y biocomercio. Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, Monografía No. 257, Washington D.C.
    • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
    • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
    • Rugeles Chacón, L. E., Ortiz, J., Díaz, G., Bladimir, L., & Huertas, D. A. (2012). La cadena de valor de los ingredientes naturales del Biocomercio para las industrias farmacéutica, alimentaria y cosmética-FAC. Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano.
    • Pérez-Arbeláez, E. (1996). Plantas útiles de Colombia: edición aumentada, 4a edición. Fondo FEN Colombia.
    • Linares, E. (1994). Inventario preliminar de las plantas utilizadas para elaborar artesanías en Colombia. Vniversitas Scientarium. Vol 2: 1-38
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lejoly, J., Ndjele, L. & Geerinck, D. (2008). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 24: 1-37.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Oliveira-Filho, A.T. (2006). Catálogo das Árvores nativas de Minas Gerais: 1-423. Editora UFLA, Lavas, Brasil.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique Colonial de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/