Skip to main content
  1. Family: Rhizophoraceae Pers.
    1. Bruguiera Lam.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is E. Tropical & S. Africa to W. Pacific.

    [FZ]

    Rhizophoraceae, A. R. Torre & A. E. Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Calyx
    Calyx glabrous, leathery, accrescent; calyx-tube adnate at the base to the ovary; calyx-lobes 8–15.
    Corolla
    Petals 2-fid and apically setigerous, involute at the base (each embracing a pair of stamens), nor clawed, inserted at the mouth of the calyx-tube.
    Stamens
    Stamens twice as many as the petals, epipetalous; filaments unequal in length in each pair, filiform; anthers linear, dehiscing longitudinally.
    Pistil
    Ovary inferior, 2–4-locular, each locule 2-ovulate; style filiform, with 2–4 minute stigmatic lobes.
    Fruits
    Fruit a leathery, indehiscent, usually unilocular, mostly 1-seeded berry, included in and adnate at the base to the calyx-tube; seed germinating on the plant, the radicle developing a ± terete or obscurely ribbed, blunt hypocotyl, which perforates the fruit-apex and falls with the fruit; cotyledons minute and connate at the base.
    Habit
    Wholly glabrous and evergreen shrubs or trees of muddy sea-shores and estuaries, with geniculate pneumatophores arising from the mud, sometimes with aerial roots when young; roots and lower part of the trunk forming a pyramidal buttressed base.
    Leaves
    Leaves decussate, petiolate; leaf-lamina entire, leathery, usually black-dotted beneath, with the nerves obscure to visible below and visible or distinct above; stipules large, lanceolate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 1-few-flowered, cymose, axillary; peduncles usually arched outwards.
    Flowers
    Flowers bisexual, ebracteolate.
    [FTEA]

    Rhizophoraceae, John Lewis. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1956

    Habit
    Medium-sized trees of muddy sea-shores and estuaries
    Roots
    Aerial roots present as elbowed arches arising from the mud Roots and lower part of trunk forming a pyramidal buttressed base
    Leaves
    Leaves evergreen, opposite, petiolate, entire, leathery and glabrous
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary or few, pedunculate, ebracteolate
    Calyx
    Calyx connate below, adnate to the ovary, 8–15-partite, glabrous, persistent, rarely becoming reflexed (not in our species)
    Corolla
    Petals as many as the calyx-lobes, inserted at the mouth of the calyx-tube, bifid, lobes setaceous
    Stamens
    Stamens twice as many as the petals, enfolded in pairs within them, dehiscing longitudinally, introrse
    Pistil
    Ovary inferior, 2–4-celled; ovules axile in pairs; stigmatic lobes minute
    Fruits
    Fruit a leathery berry bearing the persistent calyx-lobes; all but one seed aborting; pericarp accrescent
    Seeds
    Embryo falling from the tree with the fruit attached. Seed viviparous

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Christmas I., Djibouti, Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Seychelles, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Extinct in:

    Taiwan

    Introduced into:

    Florida, Hawaii

    Accepted Species

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Bruguiera Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Bibliography

    First published in Encycl. 4: 696 (1798)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Encycl. Méth.Bot. 4, 2: 696 (1798).
    • Tabl. Encycl. Méth. Bot. 2,2: t. 397 (1797)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Encycl. Méth. 4: 696 (1796)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0