1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Acalypha L.
      1. Acalypha ciliata Forssk.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent.

    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    An erect, slightly pubescent branched annual, to 21/2 ft. high.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    An erect slender annual herb up to 1 m. tall.
    Stem
    Stems sparingly crisped-puberulous and sometimes also slightly pilose.
    Leaves
    Petioles up to 7.5 cm. long; leaf-blade ovate, elliptic-ovate or occasionally ovate-lanceolate, 4–10 cm. long, 1.5–5 cm. wide, acutely or subacutely caudate-acuminate, cuneate, rounded or scarcely subcordate, crenate-serrate, membranous, 3–5-nerved at the base, lateral nerves 4–5 pairs, sparingly pubescent above and beneath, more particularly on the midrib, lateral and tertiary nerves, later glabrescent above.
    Stipules
    Stipules filiform, 2 mm. long, very sparingly pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences spicate, axillary, solitary or paired, up to 5 cm. long, densely flowered, the lower third to two-thirds ♂, the upper part ♂, sometimes terminated by an allomorphic ♀ flower on a pedicel up to 5 mm. long; axis sparingly crisped-puberulous; ♂ bracts minute; ♀ bracts transversely ovate, accrescent to up to 6 mm. long and 12 mm. wide, laciniate-multifid, the segments variable, ranging from 1.5 mm. long, lanceolate and curved forwards to 3 mm. long, filiform and patent, ciliate, glabrous, subglabrous or sparingly pubescent or pilose, occasionally with an admixture of glandular hairs, without and within, ribbed, 1-flowered.
    Male
    Male flowers subsessile; buds 4-gonous, minutely granular-tuberculate.
    Flowers
    Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, ovate-lanceolate, 1 mm. long, ciliate; ovary subtrilobate, 0.3 mm. diameter, sparingly pubescent above; styles ± free to the base, 2 mm. long, laciniate, white. Male flowers subsessile; buds 4-gonous, minutely granular-tuberculate. Allomorphic ♀ flowers obovoid, with 2 lateral and 1 basal fimbriate whorls, pubescent.
    Female
    Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, ovate-lanceolate, 1 mm. long, ciliate; ovary subtrilobate, 0.3 mm. diameter, sparingly pubescent above; styles ± free to the base, 2 mm. long, laciniate, white. Allomorphic ♀ flowers obovoid, with 2 lateral and 1 basal fimbriate whorls, pubescent.
    Fruits
    Fruit trilobate, 1.5 mm. long, 2.5 mm. diameter, smooth, subglabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid-subglobose, 1.3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, ± smooth, brown, with a flattened elliptic caruncle.
    Habitat
    Open and wooded grassland, deciduous and coastal bushland, often in rocky or damp places, also ruderal; 0–1650 m.
    Distribution
    from Senegal to Eritrea and south to Namibia and South Africa (Transvaal)S. ArabiaPakistanIndia E. to OrissaCeylon K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    An erect, slender, unbranched annual herb up to 1.3 m tall.
    Stem
    Stems puberulous.
    Petiole
    Petioles up to 7 cm long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 2–10 × 1–5.5 cm, ovate, elliptic-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, caudate-acuminate at the apex, crenate-serrate, cuneate or rounded at the base, membranous, subglabrous or sparingly pubescent on both surfaces, and more evenly so along the midrib and main nerves beneath, 3–5-nerved from the base; lateral nerves in 4–6 pairs.
    Stipules
    Stipules 1 mm long, narrowly lanceolate, ciliate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences up to 3 cm long, spicate, axillary, often paired, male in the upper half, female in the lower, sometimes terminated by a solitary allomorphic female flower; male bracts minute; female bracts accrescent to up to 6 × 10 mm, transversely ovate, multifid-laciniate, the teeth up to 4 mm long, linear to filiform, separate, erect, ciliate, the bracts as a whole sparingly pubescent or ± glabrous, ribbed, 1-flowered.
    Male
    Male flowers subsessile; buds minute, tetragonal, granular-tuberculate, greenish; anthers yellow.
    Flowers
    Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, 1 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, ciliate; ovary 0.3 mm in diameter, somewhat 3-lobed, sparingly pubescent above; styles 2 mm long, ± free, laciniate, white. Allomorphic female flowers obovoid, rugulose, with or without a pair of fimbriate whorls near the top, pubescent. Male flowers subsessile; buds minute, tetragonal, granular-tuberculate, greenish; anthers yellow.
    Female
    Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, 1 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, ciliate; ovary 0.3 mm in diameter, somewhat 3-lobed, sparingly pubescent above; styles 2 mm long, ± free, laciniate, white. Allomorphic female flowers obovoid, rugulose, with or without a pair of fimbriate whorls near the top, pubescent.
    Fruits
    Fruits 1.5 × 2.5 mm, 3-lobed, smooth, subglabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.3 × 1 mm, ovoid, ± smooth, brown, shiny, with a flattened, elliptic caruncle.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Djibouti

    Acalypha ciliata Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 18, 2008 Crawford, F. [164], Namibia K000450314
    Jan 1, 1986 Bally, P.R.O. [4248], Tanzania K000452410
    Jan 1, 1986 Harris, B.J. [4251], Tanzania K000452393
    Jan 1, 1986 Bruce, E.M. [951], Tanzania K000452418
    Jan 1, 1986 Haarer, A.E. [408], Tanzania K000452406
    Jan 1, 1986 Haarer, A.E. [667], Tanzania K000452408
    Greenway, P.J. [11442], Tanzania K000452413
    Greenway, P.J. [13967], Tanzania K000452391
    Ash [521], Ethiopia 37165.000
    Michelmore, A.P.G. [1476], Tanzania K000452396
    Milne-Redhead, E. [9081], Tanzania K000452394
    Hornby, H.E. [184], Tanzania K000452412
    Burtt, B.D. [2390B], Tanzania K000452399
    Burtt, B.D. [1399], Tanzania K000452411
    Wallace, G.B. [611], Tanzania K000452402
    Robertson, S.A. [495], Tanzania K000452419
    Stolz, A. [1861], Tanzania K000452386
    Bax, R.D. [97], Tanzania K000452400
    Bax, R.D. [98], Tanzania K000452401
    Polhill, R.M. [1040], Tanzania K000452409
    Richards, M. [17650], Tanzania K000452389
    Lovett, J. [1346], Tanzania K000452397
    Richards, H.M. [9859], Tanzania K000452388
    Richards, H.M. [21222], Tanzania K000452390
    Batty, M. [901], Tanzania K000452392
    Heyne [7781], India K000246983 Unknown type material
    Schlieben, H.J. [1745], Tanzania K000452416
    Haarer, A.E. [573], Tanzania K000452407
    Davis, R.L. [173], Tanzania K000452398
    Koritschoner, H. [2235], Tanzania K000452405
    Koritschoner, H. [2071], Tanzania K000452403
    Koritschoner, H. [2076], Tanzania K000452404
    Bidgood, S.C. [1196], Tanzania K000452414
    Bidgood, S.C. [960], Tanzania K000452415
    Bidgood, S.C. [905], Tanzania K000452420
    Clair - Thompson, G.W.S. [561], Tanzania K000452387
    Thompson, C. [1932], Tanzania K000452395
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000247146 Unknown type material
    Laferrere, M. [3], Mali K000385832

    First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 162 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lebrun, J.-P. (1998). Catalogue des plantes de la Mauritanie et du Sahara Occidental Boissiera 55: 1-322.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 16: 98.
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 901
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Lebrun, J.-P. (1998). Catalogue des plantes de la Mauritanie et du Sahara Occidental Boissiera 55: 1-322.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 215 (1974).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 410 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 51 (1952).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(16): 98 (1924).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2):99 (1921).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 901 (1912).
    • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 239 (1895).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 873 (1866).
    • Forssk., Fl. Aegypt. Arab.: 162 (1775).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0