1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Acalypha L.
      1. Acalypha fruticosa Forssk.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa, Yemen, S. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A much-branched often aromatic (vars. fruticosa, villosa, leaves smelling of hops when crushed) shrub or small tree up to 4 m. tall.
    Stem
    Stems sparingly to densely puberu-lous or pubescent or tomentose at first, later ± glabrescent, greenish at first, later becoming reddish-, greyish- or purplish-brown.
    Leaves
    Petioles 0.2–4.5(–7) cm. long, hairy ± as the stems; leaf-blade ovate, elliptic-ovate, triangular-ovate or ovate-rhomboid, (1–)3–7(–9) cm. long, (0.7)–1–4.5(–5.5) cm. wide, obtuse or obtusely, sometimes sub-acutely, gradually acuminate, mucronulate, cuneate or rounded, rarely shallowly cordate (var. eglandulosa), coarsely crenate or crenate-serrate, membranous to thinly chartaceous, (3–)5(–7)-nerved from the base, lateral nerves 4–5 pairs, the undersurface sparingly or evenly beset with small pellucid yellow glands (except var. eglandulosa), subglabrous or sparingly pubescent or pilose above and beneath, and more so on the midrib and main veins, bright yellow-green or dark green.
    Stipules
    Stipules triangular-lanceolate to subulate-lanceolate, 2–5 mm. long, keeled, ciliate or not, evenly pubescent, or sometimes pubescent only on the keels.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences ± spicate, axillary, solitary, up to 5.5 cm. long, sometimes unisexual, but usually androgynous, with a sessile, subsessile or shortly pedunculate terminal male portion, densely congested at first but later ± interrupted, and 1–7 bracteate female flowers at or near the base; allomorphic flowers 0; axis evenly puberulous to densely tomentose; outer male bracts broadly ovate, somewhat cupular, 1 mm. long, densely pubescent; inner male bracts linear-subulate, 0.5 mm. long, gland-tipped (except var. eglandulosa), pubescent; female bracts somewhat leaf-like, strongly accrescent, broadly ovate or reniform, cupular, 0.2–1.2 cm. long, 0.3–1.7 cm. wide, rounded at the apex, rounded or shallowly cordate at the base, dentate or crenate-dentate, yellow gland-dotted beneath (except var. eglandulosa), often fairly prominently ribbed beneath, glabrous or subglabrous above, glabrous or sparingly or evenly pubescent beneath, especially on the ribs, 1-flowered.
    Flowers
    Male flowers subsessile or shortly pedicellate; buds tetragonous-subglobose, densely pubescent. Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, ovate-lanceolate, 1 mm. long, ciliate; ovary subglobose-trilobate, 0.7 mm. diameter, ± smooth, with numerous yellow glands in the grooves between the lobes (except var. eglandulosa), densely pubescent or pilose; styles ± free to the base, 4 mm. long, laciniate, pink or red.
    Male
    Male flowers subsessile or shortly pedicellate; buds tetragonous-subglobose, densely pubescent.
    Female
    Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, ovate-lanceolate, 1 mm. long, ciliate; ovary subglobose-trilobate, 0.7 mm. diameter, ± smooth, with numerous yellow glands in the grooves between the lobes (except var. eglandulosa), densely pubescent or pilose; styles ± free to the base, 4 mm. long, laciniate, pink or red.
    Fruits
    Fruits trilobate, 2 mm. long, 3 mm. diameter, yellow gland-dotted (except var. eglandulosa), evenly pubescent or pilose.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid-ovoid, 1.5–2 mm. long, 1–1.3 mm. wide, smooth, brown, with an elliptic vulviform caruncle.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1925 Shuter, J. [s.n], India K000246959 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1925 s.coll. [7783], India K000246961 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1925 s.coll. [7783], India K000246960 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1925 s.coll. [s.n], India K000246956 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1925 s.coll. [s.n], India K000246955 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1925 s.coll. [s.n], India K000246957 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1925 s.coll. [s.n], India K000246958 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1925 s.coll. [s.n], India K000246954 Unknown type material
    Greenway, P.J. [11033], Tanzania K000452461
    Ash [200], Ethiopia 900.012
    Tanner, R.E.S. [4270], Tanzania K000452450
    Tanner, R.E.S. [941], Tanzania K000452451
    Tanner, R.E.S. [1660A], Tanzania K000452455
    Tanner, R.E.S. [4056], Tanzania K000452456
    Tanner, R.E.S. [3303A], Tanzania K000452463
    Burtt, B.D. [3729], Tanzania K000452452
    Pocs, T. [87232], Tanzania K000452466
    Richards, H.M. [25544], Tanzania K000452460
    Headley, P.M. [179], Ethiopia 6049.058
    Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1430], Tanzania K000452454
    Haarer, A.E. [734], Tanzania K000452459
    Haarer, A.E. [873], Tanzania K000452465
    Koritschoner, H. [2154], Tanzania K000452453
    Chuwa, S. [3043], Tanzania K000452467
    Beesley, J.S.S. [303], Tanzania K000452462
    Thompson, C. [306], Tanzania K000452464
    Lewis, H.A. [37], Tanzania K000452458
    Christenhusz, M.J.M., Kamau, P., Mbale, M. [6637], Kenya K000696621

    First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 161 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 215 (1974).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 50 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 197 (1949).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 468 (1948).
    • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 53 (1936).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(16): 169 (1924).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 96 (1921).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 895 (1912).
    • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 239 (1895).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 822 (1866).
    • Forssk., Fl. Aegypt. Arab. 161 (1775).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0