1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Acalypha L.
      1. Acalypha indica L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula to Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A small annual to robust woody herb or subshrub up to 2.5 m., although commonly much less.
    Stem
    Stems sparingly to evenly crisped-puberulous or tomentose, sometimes also evenly to densely pubescent-pilose.
    Leaves
    Leaves arranged in a mosaic pattern; petioles up to 12 cm. long, hairy like the stems; blade ovate, often broadly so, to rhomboid-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2–9 cm. long, 1–5 cm. wide, acute or subacute, cuneate, serrate, membranous, 5-nerved at the base, lateral nerves 4(–5) pairs, sparingly pubescent or almost glabrous above, evenly pubescent to almost glabrous, except for the puberulous midrib and main nerves, beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules linear-filiform, 2 mm. long, sparingly pubescent and also with one or two gland-tipped hairs on the margin.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences spicate, axillary, solitary or paired, up to 10 cm. long, though usually not exceeding 6 cm., the lower three-quarters ♀ and usually laxly flowered, the upper quarter ♂, densely flowered, often terminated by an allomorphic ♀ flower on a long pedicel, or else the inflorescence ± completely ♀; axis crisped-puberulous; ♂ bracts minute; ♀ bracts transversely ovate to suborbicular, 0.5–1.1 cm. long, 1–1.6 cm. wide, repand-dentate, ribbed, sparingly pubescent or subglabrous and then only puberulous along the ribs, 1–2(–5)-flowered.
    Male
    Male flowers subsessile or shortly pedicellate; buds 4-gonous, slightly granulate.
    Flowers
    Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, triangular-ovate, 1 mm. long, ciliate; ovary subtrilobate, 0.5 mm. diameter, sparingly pubescent above; styles united at the base, 2 mm. long, laciniate, white. Male flowers subsessile or shortly pedicellate; buds 4-gonous, slightly granulate. Allomorphic ♀ flowers obovoid, with 2 lateral fimbriate tubes, pubescent.
    Female
    Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, triangular-ovate, 1 mm. long, ciliate; ovary subtrilobate, 0.5 mm. diameter, sparingly pubescent above; styles united at the base, 2 mm. long, laciniate, white. Allomorphic ♀ flowers obovoid, with 2 lateral fimbriate tubes, pubescent.
    Fruits
    Fruit trilobate, 1.5 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, tubercled, pubescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, 1.3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, ± smooth, grey, with a flattened linear caruncle. Allomorphic ♀ flowers each producing 1 seed, identical to those of the trimerous flowers.
    Habitat
    Local water-catchment areas in dry country, along rivers, base of outcrops and scarps, also ruderal; 0–1330 m.
    Distribution
    ± throughout the Old World tropics, introduced into the warmer parts of the New World K1 K2 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T2 T3 T6 U1 Z
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    An erect usually simple-stemmed annual, or sometimes a woody subperennial herb or subshrub up to 1.2 m tall.
    Stem
    Stems ribbed, and pubescent along the ribs.
    Petiole
    Petioles up to 8.5 cm long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 2–7 × 1–5 cm, ovate to ovate-rhombic, acute or subacute at the apex, serrate except towards the base, cuneate at the base, membranous, sparingly puberulous or pubescent to subglabrous or glabrous on both surfaces, sometimes more evenly puberulous along the midrib and main nerves beneath, 5-nerved from the base; lateral nerves in 4–5 pairs.
    Stipules
    Stipules 2 mm long, linear-filiform, ciliate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences up to 9 cm long, spicate, axillary, solitary or paired, mostly female with a few male flowers above, or else all female, often terminated by a long-pedicellate allomorphic female flower; male bracts minute; female bracts accrescent to up to 1.2 × 1.4 cm, transversely ovate to suborbicular, repand-dentate, many ribbed, sparingly pubescent along the ribs, otherwise usually ± glabrous, up to 5-flowered.
    Flowers
    Male flowers subsessile; buds tetragonal, slightly granulate, yellowish-green; anthers white. Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, 1 mm long, triangular-ovate, ciliate; ovary 0.5 mm in diameter, somewhat 3-lobed, sparingly pubescent above; styles 2 mm long, united at the base, laciniate, white. Allomorphic female flowers obovoid, with a pair of fimbriate whorls near the top, pubescent.
    Male
    Male flowers subsessile; buds tetragonal, slightly granulate, yellowish-green; anthers white.
    Female
    Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, 1 mm long, triangular-ovate, ciliate; ovary 0.5 mm in diameter, somewhat 3-lobed, sparingly pubescent above; styles 2 mm long, united at the base, laciniate, white. Allomorphic female flowers obovoid, with a pair of fimbriate whorls near the top, pubescent.
    Fruits
    Fruits 1.5 × 2 mm, 3-lobed, tuberculate, pubescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.3 × 1 mm, ovoid, ± smooth, grey, with a flattened linear caruncle.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Botswana, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Cuba, Leeward Is., Madagascar, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Windward Is.

    Common Names

    English
    Indian acalypha, Poison bush

    Acalypha indica L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 Palmer, E.W. [46], Guerrero K000476855
    42522.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1003 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Patzelt, A., Harrison, T., Knees, S.G. & Hartley, L.A. (2014). Studies in the flora of Arabia: XXXI. New records from the Sultanate of Oman Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 161-180.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Sagun, V.G., Levin, G.A. & van Welzen, P.C. (2010). Revision and phylogeny of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia Blumea 55: 21-60.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Sagun, V.G., Levin, G.A. & van Welzen, P.C. (2010). Revision and phylogeny of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia Blumea 55: 21-60.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 215 (1974).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 52, t. 19 (1952).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(16): 33 (1924).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 98 (1921).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 903 (1912).
    • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 239 (1895).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 868 (1866).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 1003 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/