1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Acalypha L.
      1. Acalypha paniculata Miq.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Maldives, S. India, Sri Lanka, Jawa to Lesser Sunda Islands.

    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A perennial herb or shrub, to 10 ft. high
    Inflorescences
    A copious female inflorescence of small flowers, often deep red in colour.
    Female
    A copious female inflorescence of small flowers, often deep red in colour.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A laxly branched perennial herb or subshrub up to 1.5 m tall.
    Stem
    Stems puberulous or pubescent, sometimes also pilose or hirsute.
    Petiole
    Petioles up to 10 cm long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 3–13 × 1.5–9 cm, ovate, acuminate at the apex, crenate-serrate on the margins, rounded to shallowly cordate at the base, membranous, sparingly pubescent or hirsute or subglabrous on both surfaces, also somewhat puberulous along the midrib and main nerves, 5–9-nerved from the base; lateral nerves in 3–5 pairs.
    Stipules
    Stipules 3–4 mm long, filiform-setaceous, pubescent.
    Male
    Male flowers subsessile or shortly pedicellate; buds rounded tetragonal, glabrous, reddish. Male inflorescences up to 12 cm long, spicate, axillary, solitary; bracts 0.5 mm long.
    Inflorescences
    Female inflorescence up to 25 cm long and 6 cm wide, paniculate, terminal, rarely sometimes spicate and axillary; panicle branches subspicate or racemose; bracts minute, not accrescent, 1–3-flowered. Male inflorescences up to 12 cm long, spicate, axillary, solitary; bracts 0.5 mm long.
    Flowers
    Female flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate; sepals 5, 0.5 mm long, lanceolate, acute, sparingly pubescent; ovary 0.5 mm in diameter, somewhat 3-lobed, papillose and stipitate-glandular; styles 1–2 mm long, ± free, deeply 4–6-partite, the segments filiform, red. Male flowers subsessile or shortly pedicellate; buds rounded tetragonal, glabrous, reddish.
    Female
    Female flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate; sepals 5, 0.5 mm long, lanceolate, acute, sparingly pubescent; ovary 0.5 mm in diameter, somewhat 3-lobed, papillose and stipitate-glandular; styles 1–2 mm long, ± free, deeply 4–6-partite, the segments filiform, red. Female inflorescence up to 25 cm long and 6 cm wide, paniculate, terminal, rarely sometimes spicate and axillary; panicle branches subspicate or racemose; bracts minute, not accrescent, 1–3-flowered.
    Fruits
    Fruits 1.5 × 2 mm, 3-lobed, granulate near the apex and sparingly stipitate-glandular.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.2 × 0.8 mm, ovoid, minutely alveolate-reticulate, purplish-grey, ecarunculate.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A laxly branched perennial herb or subshrub 0.5–2(–3) m. tall.
    Stem
    Stems pubescent or pilose or both, densely so when young, later more sparingly.
    Leaves
    Petioles (3–)6–13 cm. long; leaf-blade ovate, (3–)6–9(–13) cm. long, (2–)4–8(–9) cm. wide, somewhat abruptly acutely or subacutely acuminate, rounded-cuneate, truncate or shallowly cordate, coarsely serrate or crenate, membranous, 5–7-nerved from the base, lateral nerves 4–6 pairs, sparingly setose above and beneath, more evenly so along the midrib and nerves, occasionally somewhat glandular-stipitate on the margins.
    Stipules
    Stipules linear-lanceolate, 2 mm. long, sparingly setose and stipitate-glandular.
    Inflorescences
    Male racemes solitary, axillary, up to 20 cm. long; axis puberulous; bracts 0.5 mm. long. Female inflorescence paniculate, terminal, rarely sometimes also racemose and axillary, up to 35 cm. long; panicle-branches racemose, rarely with 1–2 ♂ flowers near the base; axis and branches puberulous; bracts minute, 1–3-flowered.
    Male
    Male racemes solitary, axillary, up to 20 cm. long; axis puberulous; bracts 0.5 mm. long. Male flowers:pedicels 0.5 mm. long; buds 4-gonous, apiculate, 0.5 mm. diameter, glabrous; calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, 0.5 mm. long, somewhat acute.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels ± 1 mm. long; sepals 5, lanceolate, 0.5 mm. long, acute, sparingly pubescent without; ovary subtrilobed, 0.7 mm. diameter, granular-warty and glandular-stipitate; styles ± free, 2 mm. long, deeply 4–6-partite, the segments filiform, simple, 1.5 mm. long, glabrous, red. Male flowers:pedicels 0.5 mm. long; buds 4-gonous, apiculate, 0.5 mm. diameter, glabrous; calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, 0.5 mm. long, somewhat acute.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels ± 1 mm. long; sepals 5, lanceolate, 0.5 mm. long, acute, sparingly pubescent without; ovary subtrilobed, 0.7 mm. diameter, granular-warty and glandular-stipitate; styles ± free, 2 mm. long, deeply 4–6-partite, the segments filiform, simple, 1.5 mm. long, glabrous, red. Female inflorescence paniculate, terminal, rarely sometimes also racemose and axillary, up to 35 cm. long; panicle-branches racemose, rarely with 1–2 ♂ flowers near the base; axis and branches puberulous; bracts minute, 1–3-flowered.
    Fruits
    Fruits trilobed, 1.5 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, granulose toward the apex, sparingly glandular-stipitate.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, 1.2 mm. long, 0.8 mm. wide, minutely alveolate-reticulate, purplish grey, ecarunculate.
    Habitat
    Forest, open places, edges and riverine, sometimes in rocky or disturbed places nearby; 100–2000 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T5 T6 T8 U1 U2 more or less throughout tropical Africa from the Ivory Coast to Eritrea and south to Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Maldives, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Acalypha paniculata Miq. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2010 Cheek, M. [11671], Cameroon K000678385
    Mar 1, 2010 Cheek, M. [11143], Cameroon K000678380
    Mar 1, 2010 Etuge, M. [5245], Cameroon K000678384
    Jan 1, 1976 Thwaites [2096], Sri Lanka K000246951 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1925 s.coll. [s.n.], India K000185996 isotype
    Dawkins, H.C. [484], Uganda 4325.000
    s.coll. [7784], India K000185995 isotype
    s.coll. [7784], India K000959046

    First published in Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(2): 406 (1859)

    Accepted by

    • Muñoz-Rodríguez, P., Cardiel, J.M. & Atha, D. (2014). Acalypha subgenus Linostachys (Euphorbiaceae, Acalyphoideae): a global review Phytotaxa 166: 199-221.
    • Barberá, P., Velayos, M. & Aedo, C. (2013). Annotated checklist and identification keys of the Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Phytotaxa 140: 1-25.
    • Sagun, V.G., Levin, G.A. & van Welzen, P.C. (2010). Revision and phylogeny of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia Blumea 55: 21-60.

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Acalypha racemosa.]
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Acalypha racemosa.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Muñoz-Rodríguez, P., Cardiel, J.M. & Atha, D. (2014). Acalypha subgenus Linostachys (Euphorbiaceae, Acalyphoideae): a global review Phytotaxa 166: 199-221.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Barberá, P., Velayos, M. & Aedo, C. (2013). Annotated checklist and identification keys of the Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Phytotaxa 140: 1-25.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0