1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Acalypha L.
      1. Acalypha villicaulis Hochst. ex A.Rich.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A perennial herb or subshrub up to 1(–2) m. tall, with a few erect, ascending or decumbent stems arising from a woody rootstock.
    Stem
    Stems at the same time both crisped-puberulous and sparingly to densely patent-hirsute.
    Leaves
    Petioles (0.3–)1–3(–5) cm. long, hairy like the stems, usually with a pair of filiform glands 1 mm. long at the junction with the blade; leaf-blade sometimes ovate, more often ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate or even linear-lanceolate, (2–)5–12.5(–14) cm. long, (0.5–)1–4 cm. wide, attenuate or subacutely to obtusely acuminate, usually cordate, sometimes rounded or truncate, serrate or crenate-serrate, often rather coarsely so, firmly membranous, (5–)7(–9)-nerved at the base, lateral nerves 5–8 pairs, sparingly to evenly, rarely densely, pubescent or hirsute above and beneath, more particularly on the midrib and main veins.
    Stipules
    Stipules subulate-filiform, 1.5–4(–6) mm. long, with a few subsessile glands on the margin, sparingly pilose.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels ± 1 mm. long; buds 4-lobate, subglobose, sparingly pubescent. Male racemes solitary, axillary, up to 11 cm. long, densely flowered, pedunculate or not, sometimes the peduncle up to half the length of the inflorescence; axis crisped-puberulous; bracts linear, 1.5 mm. long, acute, pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Female inflorescences spicate, usually solitary, terminal, capitate, subcylindric or cylindric, up to 3 cm. long and 1.5 cm. wide when mature, subsessile or shortly pedunculate; bracts transversely ovate to suborbicular, accrescent, 5 mm. long and 1 cm. wide when fully developed, dentate, sparingly pubescent and fairly densely beset with stipitate glands without, and within on the teeth, 1-flowered. Male racemes solitary, axillary, up to 11 cm. long, densely flowered, pedunculate or not, sometimes the peduncle up to half the length of the inflorescence; axis crisped-puberulous; bracts linear, 1.5 mm. long, acute, pubescent.
    Flowers
    Female flowers sessile; sepals 3(–4), ovate-lanceolate, 1 mm. long, acute, ciliate, pubescent without, glabrous within; ovary trilobate-subglobose, 0.8 mm. diameter, pubescent in the upper half; styles free, up to 1.6 cm. long, pectinate, red. Male flowers:pedicels ± 1 mm. long; buds 4-lobate, subglobose, sparingly pubescent.
    Female
    Female flowers sessile; sepals 3(–4), ovate-lanceolate, 1 mm. long, acute, ciliate, pubescent without, glabrous within; ovary trilobate-subglobose, 0.8 mm. diameter, pubescent in the upper half; styles free, up to 1.6 cm. long, pectinate, red. Female inflorescences spicate, usually solitary, terminal, capitate, subcylindric or cylindric, up to 3 cm. long and 1.5 cm. wide when mature, subsessile or shortly pedunculate; bracts transversely ovate to suborbicular, accrescent, 5 mm. long and 1 cm. wide when fully developed, dentate, sparingly pubescent and fairly densely beset with stipitate glands without, and within on the teeth, 1-flowered.
    Fruits
    Fruits trilobate, 4 mm. long, 5 mm. diameter, sparingly pubescent and with a few scattered glandular hairs at the apex, glabrous below.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid-subglobose, 2.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, smooth, dark grey, with a depressed-hemispherical caruncle ± 1 mm. across.
    Habitat
    Wooded and open grassland, extending marginally into woodland and forest edges, persisting in cultivated ground; 50–2000 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 from Senegal eastwards to Ethiopia and south to Namibia, Botswana, South Africa (Transvaal) and Swaziland
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A hairy herb, 2–3 ft. or more high, woody at the base
    Flowers
    Red-purple female flowers.
    Female
    Red-purple female flowers.
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Perennial herb; stems to 16 in. high.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Hairy stemmed acalypha

    Acalypha villicaulis Hochst. ex A.Rich. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1949 Semsei, S.R. [FH2480], Tanzania K000452708
    Greenway, P.J. [15340], Tanzania K000452732
    Greenway, P.J. [14289], Tanzania K000452741
    Dawkins, H.C. [453], Uganda 4326.000
    Bally, P.R.O. [5804], Tanzania K000452699
    Gillman, H. [484], Tanzania K000452684
    Bullock, A.A. [2288], Tanzania K000452706
    Chevalier, A. [5495], Central African Republic K000431044
    Harley, R.M. [9272], Tanzania K000452722
    Tanner, R.E.S. [5379], Tanzania K000452673
    Tanner, R.E.S. [3088], Tanzania K000452695
    Tanner, R.E.S. [5613B], Tanzania K000452672
    Tanner, R.E.S. [5189], Tanzania K000452674
    Tanner, R.E.S. [5261], Tanzania K000452675
    Tanner, R.E.S. [4849], Tanzania K000452676
    Tanner, R.E.S. [4648], Tanzania K000452677
    Tanner, R.E.S. [4512], Tanzania K000452678
    Tanner, R.E.S. [4182], Tanzania K000452679
    Tanner, R.E.S. [1499], Tanzania K000452680
    Tanner, R.E.S. [1155], Tanzania K000452681
    Tanner, R.E.S. [1118], Tanzania K000452682
    Tanner, R.E.S. [2758], Tanzania K000452696
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7078], Tanzania K000452697
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7744], Tanzania K000452749
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7496], Tanzania K000452750
    Burtt, B.D. [1707], Tanzania K000452688
    Burtt, B.D. [1044], Tanzania K000452731
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000431090 Unknown type material
    Hornby [2054], Tanzania K000452730
    Polhill, R.M. [2360], Tanzania K000452687
    Polhill, R.M. [1116], Tanzania K000452729
    Haerdi, F. [412O], Tanzania K000452734
    Richards, M. [28627], Tanzania K000452726
    Richards, M. [29011], Tanzania K000452727
    Richards, M. [28695], Tanzania K000452728
    Richards, M. [18672], Tanzania K000452742
    Archbold, M.E. [3104], Tanzania K000452691
    Archbold, M.E. [2827], Tanzania K000452692
    Sanane, M. [203], Tanzania K000452714
    Faulkner [4679], Tanzania K000452694
    Faulkner [1395], Tanzania K000452698
    Thulin, M. [922], Tanzania K000452740
    Schimper [781], Ethiopia K000431035 Unknown type material
    Schimper [781], Ethiopia K000431034 Unknown type material
    Schimper [737], Ethiopia K000431033 Unknown type material
    Schimper [737], Ethiopia K000431032 Unknown type material
    Bjornstad, A. [AB1216], Tanzania K000452739
    Lovett, J. [1066], Tanzania K000452685
    Lovett, J. [3785], Tanzania K000452736
    Lovett, J. [3580], Tanzania K000452738
    Lovett, J. [3289A], Tanzania K000452737
    Lovett, J. [3941], Tanzania K000452746
    Mwasumbi, L.B. [DSM505], Tanzania K000452733
    Mwasumbi, L.B. [16577], Tanzania K000452745
    Magogo [356], Tanzania K000452693
    Richards, H.M. [24795], Tanzania K000452686
    Richards, H.M. [11153], Tanzania K000452720
    Richards, H.M. [26149], Tanzania K000452716
    Richards, H.M. [11747], Tanzania K000452723
    Boaler, S.B. [482], Tanzania K000452724
    Luke, W.R.Q. [5587], Tanzania K000452743
    Bruce, E.M. [311], Tanzania K000452735
    Quartin-Dillon [90], Ethiopia K000431031
    Iversen, S.T. [87128], Tanzania K000452690
    Haarer, A.E. [531], Tanzania K000452689
    Gereau, R.E. [3057], Tanzania K000452744
    Newbould, J.B. [2383], Tanzania K000452717
    Newbould, J.B. [2418], Tanzania K000452719
    Newbould, J.B. [4215], Tanzania K000452721
    Newbould, J.B. [2417], Tanzania K000452718
    Welch, J.R. [55], Tanzania K000452704
    Mbago, F. [1048], Tanzania K000452701
    Koritschoner, H. [1880A], Tanzania K000452683
    Koritschoner, H. [842], Tanzania K000452700
    Mahinde, S. [HCM56], Tanzania K000452702
    Harris, T. [31], Mozambique K000545033
    Kisena [1384], Tanzania K000452711
    Ruffo, C.K. [3216], Tanzania K000452748
    Pirozynski, K.A. [P654], Tanzania K000452715
    Pirozynski, K.A. [P29], Tanzania K000452725
    Bidgood, S.C. [1815], Tanzania K000452747
    Smith, F.G.S. [1148], Tanzania K000452703
    Thomas, L. [3], Tanzania K000452705
    Thomas, L. [94], Tanzania K000452707
    Llyod, H.M. [24], Tanzania K000452710
    Hasegawa, T.O.M. [57], Tanzania K000452712
    Clutton-Brock, T.H. [482], Tanzania K000452713
    Krauss [367], South Africa Acalypha petiolaris K000431110 Unknown type material
    Krauss [319], South Africa Acalypha petiolaris K000431112
    Drège, C. [s.n.], South Africa Acalypha petiolaris K000431109
    Drège, C. [s.n.], South Africa Acalypha petiolaris K000431111

    First published in Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 248 (1850)

    Accepted by

    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Acalypha brachiata.]
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Acalypha brachiata.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 2: 200, t. 56/1 (1983).
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 216 (1974).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 50 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 197 (1949).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147 (16): 80 (1924).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 97 (1921).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 893 (1912).
    • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 239 (1895).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 845 (1866).
    • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 248 (1851).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/