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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Aleurites J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
      1. Aleurites moluccanus (L.) Willd.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to NE. Queensland.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Pacífico.
    Habit
    Árbol
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A tree up to 10 m tall with a rounded crown.
    Bark
    Bark smooth, grey.
    Shoots
    Young shoots, petioles and inflorescence axes densely scurfily fulvous to ferrugineous stellate-tomentose.
    Stipules
    Stipules minute, subulate.
    Petiole
    Petioles 6–22 cm long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 7–24 × 4–20 cm, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate or ovate-trullate, entire or up to 5-lobed, apex and lobes subacute to acutely acuminate, entire or shallowly repand-dentate on the margins, cuneate to truncate or shallowly cordate at the base, with 2 discoid, sessile, contiguous, shiny glands adaxially at the base, 3–5(7)-nerved from the base, densely cinereous-, fulvous- or ferrugineous-stellate-tomentose on both surfaces at first, later glabrescent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 10–16 × 10–14 cm, broadly conical, branching from the base; bracts 2–3 mm long.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 7–10 mm long, slender; buds 2 mm long, ovoid; calyx lobes 3–3.5 × 2–3 mm, ovate, acute, stellate-tomentose without, glabrous within; petals 6–8 × 2 mm, narrowly oblong-spathulate, obtuse, glabrous, yellowish-white; disk glands 0.5 × 0.5 mm, shallowly 3-lobed, flattened, whitish; staminal column 4 mm high, filaments c. 1 mm long, green, puberulous with simple hairs, anthers 0.5 mm long and wide, yellowish; receptacle puberulous.
    Flowers
    Female flowers: pedicels 3–4.5 mm long, stout, dilated upwards; buds 4 mm long, conical; petals 1.5 mm wide, otherwise as in male flowers; disk c. 2 mm across, flattened; ovary c. 1.5 × 2 mm, subglobose, densely appressed-stellate-tomentose; styles c. 1 mm long, glabrous except at the base without. Male flowers: pedicels 7–10 mm long, slender; buds 2 mm long, ovoid; calyx lobes 3–3.5 × 2–3 mm, ovate, acute, stellate-tomentose without, glabrous within; petals 6–8 × 2 mm, narrowly oblong-spathulate, obtuse, glabrous, yellowish-white; disk glands 0.5 × 0.5 mm, shallowly 3-lobed, flattened, whitish; staminal column 4 mm high, filaments c. 1 mm long, green, puberulous with simple hairs, anthers 0.5 mm long and wide, yellowish; receptacle puberulous.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 3–4.5 mm long, stout, dilated upwards; buds 4 mm long, conical; petals 1.5 mm wide, otherwise as in male flowers; disk c. 2 mm across, flattened; ovary c. 1.5 × 2 mm, subglobose, densely appressed-stellate-tomentose; styles c. 1 mm long, glabrous except at the base without.
    Fruits
    Fruit 4 × 4–5.5 cm, ovoid-subglobose or transversely-ovoid, shallowly 2-lobed and with 4 low longitudinal ridges, evenly to sparingly appressed- or scurfily stellate-pubescent, green.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.5 × 2.75 × 2.25 cm, broadly ovoid, shallowly rugulose, brown mottled cream-coloured or whitish.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A tree up to 15 m. tall, with spreading pendulous and ascending branches.
    Shoots
    Young shoots scurfily fulvous to ferruginous stellate-pubescent.
    Leaves
    Petiole 4–16(–22) cm. long, evenly scurfily or shortly stellate pubescent or puberulous; leaf-blade ovate to ovate-lanceolate or ovate-trullate, entire or sometimes shallowly 3–5-lobed, (9–)12–25 cm. long, 6–15(–24) cm. wide, apex and lobes subacute to shortly acutely acuminate, cuneate or rounded or (if the leaves lobed) truncate or shallowly or moderately cordate, with 2 circular, sessile, shining contiguous glands adaxially at the base, 3–5(–7)-nerved from the base, densely fulvous to ferruginous stellate-pubescent above and beneath at first, later becoming almost or quite glabrous on both surfaces.
    Stipules
    Stipules cylindric, 1 mm. long, rounded at the apex, stellate-pubescent, readily caducous leaving 2 small circular scars.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences conical, up to 15 cm. long and wide, branching from the base; axes densely fulvous stellate-tomentellous; bracts 2–3 mm. long, acute, densely fulvous stellate-tomentellous.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels slender, 5–7 mm. long, stellate-pubescent; buds ovoid, 2 mm. long, obtuse, the calyx rupturing to the base into 2 ± equal lobes, stellate-tomentose without, glabrous within; petals spathulate-oblanceolate, 5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous except for a few hairs within at the base, yellowish white; disc-lobes somewhat convolute, thick; stamens 17–20, the filaments 1 mm. long, simply puberulous, the anthers 0.5 mm. long; receptacle simply puberulous.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels 2–3 mm. long, 1.5–2 mm. thick, stellate-pubescent; buds ellipsoid, 5 mm. long, otherwise as in the ♂ flowers; petals linear-oblanceolate, 1 cm. long, 2 mm. wide, otherwise as in the ♂ flowers; disc-glands small, rounded; ovary subglobose, 1.5 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, densely stellate-tomentose; styles  1 mm. long, glabrous. Male flowers:pedicels slender, 5–7 mm. long, stellate-pubescent; buds ovoid, 2 mm. long, obtuse, the calyx rupturing to the base into 2 ± equal lobes, stellate-tomentose without, glabrous within; petals spathulate-oblanceolate, 5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous except for a few hairs within at the base, yellowish white; disc-lobes somewhat convolute, thick; stamens 17–20, the filaments 1 mm. long, simply puberulous, the anthers 0.5 mm. long; receptacle simply puberulous.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 2–3 mm. long, 1.5–2 mm. thick, stellate-pubescent; buds ellipsoid, 5 mm. long, otherwise as in the ♂ flowers; petals linear-oblanceolate, 1 cm. long, 2 mm. wide, otherwise as in the ♂ flowers; disc-glands small, rounded; ovary subglobose, 1.5 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, densely stellate-tomentose; styles  1 mm. long, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Fruits fleshy, ovoid-subglobose or transversely ovoid with 4 low longitudinal ridges, 4–4.5 cm. long, 4–6 cm. diameter, evenly to sparingly stellate-pubescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds broadly ovoid, 2.5–3 cm. long and wide, gibberulous, greyish, mottled brownish.
    Figures
    Fig. 34.
    Habitat
    Cultivated; 650–1850 m.
    Distribution
    native of tropical Asia and Oceania from India and China to Polynesia and New Zealand, and widely cultivated in the tropics generallythe ‘Candlenut Tree’ K4 P T3 T6 T7 T8 U2 U3 Z

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan, India, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Bahamas, Brazil Northeast, Cayman Is., Christmas I., Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Florida, Haiti, Hawaii, Jamaica, Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Madagascar, Marquesas, Mozambique, New Caledonia, Niue, Paraguay, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Samoa, Society Is., Swaziland, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Aleurites moluccanus (L.) Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 10, 1998 Gouvea, M.F. [8.283], Paraná K000716390
    Faulkner, H. [2557], Tanzania 22001.000
    Brunt, M., Kenya 63716.000
    Hyland, B. [2696], Australia 33632.000
    Hyland, B. [2696], Australia 34524.000
    March, W.T. [1184], Jamaica K000716388
    Havel, J.J. [9169], Papua New Guinea Aleurites moluccanus var. floccosus K000959479 holotype

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 590 (1805)

    Accepted by

    • Keller, H.A., Stampella, P.C., Delucchi, G. & Hurrell, J.A. (2013). Vernicia fordii y Aleurites moluccanus (Euphorbiaceae) en la Argentina. Naturalización y etnobotánica Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 48: 553-561.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Keller, H.A., Stampella, P.C., Delucchi, G. & Hurrell, J.A. (2013). Vernicia fordii y Aleurites moluccanus (Euphorbiaceae) en la Argentina. Naturalización y etnobotánica Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 48: 553-561.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 2: 204, t. 60/1 (1983).
    • Airy Shaw in Kew Bulletin 20: 393 (1967).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 193 (1962).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 199 (1949).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 60, t. 23 (1921).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(1): 129, t. 45 (1910).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 723 (1866).
    • Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 590 (1805).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0