1. Family: Chrysobalanaceae R.Br.
    1. Parinari Aubl.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics.


    Rosaceae, R. A. Graham. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1960

    Trees or shrubs, sometimes low and rhizomatous
    Leaves simple, entire, with 2 glands on the upper side of the petiole or at the junction of the petiole with the blade
    Bracts, bracteoles, and stipules caducous
    Flowers hermaphrodite
    Calyx-tube turbinate and often obliquely bent (subgen. Sarcostegia) or cup-shaped and unilaterally gibbous or ± so (subgen. Parinari); calyx-lobes 5, triangular-acute (Parinari) or ± rounded, concave (Sarcostegia)
    Petals 5, caducous
    Fertile stamens very many (20–40), long-exserted (Sarcostegia) or few, 7–8, not or scarcely exserted (Parinari), confined to the dorsal and lateral rims of the strongly concave receptacle, and replaced at the frontal rim by very short staminodes
    Ovary dorsifixed; carpels usually 1, rarely 2–3, each bilocular (sometimes only partially so); ovules 1 to each cell; style basal, long-exserted (Sarcostegia) or short, included or ± so (Parinari)
    Fruit drupaceous, ellipsoid, obovoid or ± globose, 1-seeded.

    Chrysobalanaceae, F. White. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Trees or rhizomatous geoxylic suffrutices.
    Lower leaf-surface with a close, prominent, reticulate venation which delimits small stomatal cavities (crypts) filled with hairs.
    Inflorescence a many-flowered complex cyme or cymose panicle.
    Bracts and bracteoles eglandular, completely concealing flower buds, both individually and in small groups.
    Flowers slightly zygomorphic.
    Receptacle-tube subcampanulate, slightly swollen on one side, hairy inside throughout.
    Sepals acute.
    Petals as long as sepals, caducous.
    Stamens 6–10; filaments white, slightly curved in bud and during anthesis, slightly expanded at the base; staminodes c. 6, subulate.
    Ovary monocarpellary, 2-locular, inserted in upper half of receptacle-tube below the mouth; style arcuate, included.
    Drupe fleshy; epicarp verrucose; endocarp hard, thick, with a rough, fibrous surface, with 2 basal plugs or stoppers, the detachment of which allows the seedlings to escape.
    Germination hypogeal, first leaves alternate.



    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Bolivia, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:


    Parinari Aubl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Small, D. [888], Sierra Leone 36207.000
    Jacobs, M. [5543], Sarawak 31305.000
    Cameroon 35223.000

    First published in Hist. Pl. Guiane 1: 514 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • Prance, G.T. & Sothers, C.A. (2003). Chrysobalanaceae 1 & 2 Species Plantarum: Flora of the World 9, 10: 1-319, 1-268. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.


    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Hauman in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 21: 184–198 (1951).
    • —F.T.A. 2: 366
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hist. Pl. Guiane Fr. 1: 514, t. 204–206 (1775).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Pl. Guiane Fr. 1: 514 (1775)


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0