1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Bridelia Willd.
      1. Bridelia cathartica Bertol.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A rather variable scrambling single- or many-stemmed much branched shrub or small tree up to 7 m tall with a dense rounded crown and with horizontal or pendent branches.
    Bark
    Bark light grey or brownish, smooth or rough, fissured.
    Twigs
    Twigs brown, lenticellate.
    Shoots
    Young shoots and petioles evenly to sparingly pubescent, puberulous or subglabrous.
    Petiole
    Petioles 2–5 mm long.
    Stipules
    Stipules up to 7 × 1 mm, linear-lanceolate or linear, sparingly pubescent or subglabrous, soon falling.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 1–12 × 0.5–7 cm, elliptic-obovate to elliptic-oblong, rounded or obtuse, occasionally subacute, cuneate or rounded, rarely ± truncate at the base, margins sometimes revolute, firmly chartaceous to thinly coriaceous, glabrous above, evenly to sparingly pubescent along the midrib and nerves or else subglabrous to quite glabrous beneath, often bluish-green and shiny above, pale grey-green to glaucous and dull beneath; lateral nerves in 7–14 pairs, cheilodromous or brochidodromous, occasionally camptodromous, not prominent or slightly impressed above, slightly to strongly prominent beneath, tertiary nerves scarcely visible to prominent beneath.
    Flowers
    Flowers and fruits borne on leafy or wholly or partially leafless shoots. Female flowers sessile or subsessile; sepals ± as in the male, but somewhat thicker; petals c. 1 × 1 mm, rhombic-obovate, subentire; outer disk 2 mm in diameter, pentagonal, inner of 3 lobes c. 1 mm high, each lobe ± triangular, toothed; ovary c. 1 × 0.75 mm, ovoid, 2-locular; styles 2, 1 mm long, free, shortly bifid, stigmas uneven, greenish. Male flowers sweetly-scented; pedicels very short or 0; sepals 2 × 1–1.5 mm, triangular-ovate, acute, glabrous, pale yellowish-green; petals 1×1 mm, flabelliform, erose at apex, pale greenish- or creamy-yellow; disk 1.75 mm in diameter, flat, entire, greenish; staminal column 1.25 mm high, greenish; anthers 0.67 mm long, yellow; pistillode 0.75 mm tall, conic-cylindric, deeply bifid.
    Male
    Male flowers sweetly-scented; pedicels very short or 0; sepals 2 × 1–1.5 mm, triangular-ovate, acute, glabrous, pale yellowish-green; petals 1×1 mm, flabelliform, erose at apex, pale greenish- or creamy-yellow; disk 1.75 mm in diameter, flat, entire, greenish; staminal column 1.25 mm high, greenish; anthers 0.67 mm long, yellow; pistillode 0.75 mm tall, conic-cylindric, deeply bifid.
    Female
    Female flowers sessile or subsessile; sepals ± as in the male, but somewhat thicker; petals c. 1 × 1 mm, rhombic-obovate, subentire; outer disk 2 mm in diameter, pentagonal, inner of 3 lobes c. 1 mm high, each lobe ± triangular, toothed; ovary c. 1 × 0.75 mm, ovoid, 2-locular; styles 2, 1 mm long, free, shortly bifid, stigmas uneven, greenish.
    Fruits
    Fruit 6–11 × 7–10 mm when dried, subglobose, 2-locular, green at first, later becoming reddish-purple then blackish.
    Seeds
    Seeds 7 × 6 × 3 mm, smooth, shiny, chestnut-brown.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A spindly scandent evergreen shrub or much-branched small tree with a flat, spreading crown 1–9 m. tall with the ultimate shoots pendent.
    Bark
    Bark grey, greyish-brown or black, rough, reticulate, fissured or stringy.
    Twigs
    Twigs brown or purplish brown, prominently lenticellate.
    Shoots
    Young shoots and petioles sparingly pubescent to subglabrous.
    Leaves
    Petioles (2–)3–5 mm. long; leaf-blades obovate to elliptic-oblanceolate, (1–)3–12(–18) cm. long, (0.5–)1–5(–8) cm. wide, rounded, obtuse or subacute at apex, cuneate, rounded or rarely shallowly subcordate at base, chartaceous to somewhat coriaceous, lateral nerves (5–)7–11(–18) pairs, usually brochidodromous but very occasionally craspedodromous, not prominent or slightly impressed above, prominent beneath, with a less prominent tertiary nerve-network beneath, glabrous above, evenly to sparingly whitish or ferruginous pubescent or glabrous beneath, pale to dark green and shiny above, often somewhat glaucous beneath with the midrib and main nerves often orange or yellowish.
    Stipules
    Stipules lanceolate, 3–4 mm. long, acute or acutely acuminate, sparingly pubescent or subglabrous.
    Flowers
    Flowers densely glomerulate, with at least some of the lowest glomerules usually subtended by leaves. Male flowers:pedicels very short, pubescent or glabrous; sepals triangular, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, acute, glabrous, greenish, yellowish green or pale yellow; petals flabelliform, 1 mm. long and wide, 5-toothed at the apex; disc saucer-shaped, 1.5–2 mm. across, entire, glabrous; staminal column 1 mm. high; anthers 0.5 mm. long, yellow; pistillode cylindric, 0.5 mm. tall, deeply bifid at the apex. Female flowers sessile or subsessile; sepals ovate, thick, otherwise ± as in the ♂ flowers; petals rhombic, 1 mm. long, less than 1 mm. wide, subentire; outer disc annular, 2 mm. across, inner disc divided into 2 ± triangular toothed lobes enclosing the ovary; ovary ovoid, 1 mm. long, 2-locular; styles 2, free, bifid.
    Bracts
    Bracts ovate, acute, keeled, sparingly pubescent.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels very short, pubescent or glabrous; sepals triangular, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, acute, glabrous, greenish, yellowish green or pale yellow; petals flabelliform, 1 mm. long and wide, 5-toothed at the apex; disc saucer-shaped, 1.5–2 mm. across, entire, glabrous; staminal column 1 mm. high; anthers 0.5 mm. long, yellow; pistillode cylindric, 0.5 mm. tall, deeply bifid at the apex.
    Female
    Female flowers sessile or subsessile; sepals ovate, thick, otherwise ± as in the ♂ flowers; petals rhombic, 1 mm. long, less than 1 mm. wide, subentire; outer disc annular, 2 mm. across, inner disc divided into 2 ± triangular toothed lobes enclosing the ovary; ovary ovoid, 1 mm. long, 2-locular; styles 2, free, bifid.
    Fruits
    Fruits subglobose, 2-locular, 6–10 mm. long, 7–9 mm. wide, green at first later becoming reddish brown or black.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4.5 mm. long, smooth, shiny, chestnut-brown.
    Figures
    Fig. 23/1–4, p. 124.
    Habitat
    Woodland, bushland and thicket, commonly riverine or in rocky places, persisting in secondary associations; 0–2000 m.
    Distribution
    K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Z from Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia south-west to Zaire (Shaba) and south to South Africa (Natal)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Caprivi Strip, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Bridelia cathartica Bertol. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Brenan, J.P.M. [7800], Zambia 2105.000
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Tanzania K000406010
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Tanzania K000406011
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [1295], Tanzania K000406012

    First published in Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna 5: 476 (1854)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 194 (1962).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 43 (1921).
    • Jabl. in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(8): 61 (1915).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 617 (1912).
    • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 237 (1895).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 502 (1866).
    • Bertol. f. in Mem. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna 5: 476, t. 28 (1854).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0