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  1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Bridelia Willd.
      1. Bridelia ferruginea Benth.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A savannah shrub or tree, to 20 ft. high, often with spines
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish-yellow
    Disc
    Reddish disk
    Ecology
    The more sparsely pubescent forms come mainly from the moister regions.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A shrub or small tree up to c. 6 m high with spiny branches.
    Bark
    Bark cracked, grey.
    Twigs
    Twigs dark brown.
    Shoots
    Young shoots and petioles denseley ferrugineous-tomentose.
    Petiole
    Petioles 5–7 mm long.
    Stipules
    Stipules 5–6 × 1.5–2 mm, lanceolate, acuminate, tomentose, readily caducous.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 4–10 × 3–5.5 cm, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, subacute to shortly obtusely acuminate, rounded, truncate or sometimes cordulate at the base, thinly coriaceous, evenly pubescent along the midrib and main nerves above and beneath, otherwise sparingly so, glossy green above and paler beneath when fresh, drying dark brown or greyish-brown above, dark reddish-brown beneath; lateral nerves in 7–10 pairs, cheilodromous, scarcely prominent above, prominent beneath, tertiary nerves parallel, fairly prominent beneath, quaternary nerves reticulate.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 1–1.5 mm long, puberulous; sepals 2 × 1 mm, triangular-ovate-lanceolate, acute, puberulous without, glabrous within, yellowish-green; petals 1 × 0.75 mm, obdeltoid-spathulate, incised or tridentate at the apex, cornute, glabrous; disk 1.5–2 mm in diameter, annular, ± smooth; staminal column 1 mm high; anthers 0.7 × 0.5 mm; pistillode 0.5 mm high, conical, notched at apex.
    Flowers
    Female flowers subsessile; sepals 1.5 × 1.5 mm, triangular, thick, otherwise as in male; petals elliptic-obovate, puberulous without, otherwise as in male; outer disk ± as in male; inner laciniate at the apex, ciliate within, pubescent or subglabrous; ovary 1.5 × 1 mm, ellipsoid, 2-celled; styles 2, c. 1 mm long, ± free, bifid, stigmas ± smooth. Male flowers: pedicels 1–1.5 mm long, puberulous; sepals 2 × 1 mm, triangular-ovate-lanceolate, acute, puberulous without, glabrous within, yellowish-green; petals 1 × 0.75 mm, obdeltoid-spathulate, incised or tridentate at the apex, cornute, glabrous; disk 1.5–2 mm in diameter, annular, ± smooth; staminal column 1 mm high; anthers 0.7 × 0.5 mm; pistillode 0.5 mm high, conical, notched at apex.
    Female
    Female flowers subsessile; sepals 1.5 × 1.5 mm, triangular, thick, otherwise as in male; petals elliptic-obovate, puberulous without, otherwise as in male; outer disk ± as in male; inner laciniate at the apex, ciliate within, pubescent or subglabrous; ovary 1.5 × 1 mm, ellipsoid, 2-celled; styles 2, c. 1 mm long, ± free, bifid, stigmas ± smooth.
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 7 × 4–5 mm when dried, ellipsoid to ovoid-ellipsoid, 1-locular by abortion, green at first, then reddening and becoming purplish-black at maturity.
    Seeds
    Seeds 5 × 3 mm, smooth, brownish.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Bangladesh

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Bridelia ferruginea Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 1973 Mbenkum, T. [385], Cameroon K000180601
    Jan 1, 1963 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4402], Burkina Faso K000385804
    Sep 1, 1955 Vogel [62], Nigeria K000406031
    Keay, R.W.J. [37458], Cameroon K000180599
    Andrews, F.W. [1825], Sudan 2103.000
    Vogel [s.n.], Nigeria K000406033 Unknown type material
    Vogel [s.n.], Nigeria K000406032
    Laferrere, M. [66], Mali K000385806
    Toutain, B. [2782], Burkina Faso K000385802
    Brunt, M.A. [52], Cameroon K000180597

    Bibliography

    First published in W.J.Hooker, Niger Fl.: 511 (1849)

    Accepted by

    • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Breteler, F.J. (2012). Flore du Gabon 43: 1-107. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 181, t. 32, 1.
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 2: 34
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 619, partly

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0