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  1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Bridelia Willd.
      1. Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Mascarenes.

    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Shrub or tree, to 60 ft. high, with a dense widely spreading crown
    Spines
    Branches often spiny
    Ecology
    In secondary forest regrowth and in savannahs of the moister regions.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A shrub, sometimes scandent, or much-branched tree 2–18(–27) m. with spreading or often pendulous branches and a rounded crown.
    Stem
    Trunk and branches usually with scattered woody thorns.
    Bark
    Bark silver-grey, greenish grey, brown, dark grey or black, smooth or rough and reticulately fissured and flaking.
    Twigs
    Twigs grey, brown or purplish, prominently lenticellate.
    Shoots
    Young shoots and petioles evenly to sparingly pubescent or subglabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves distichous; petioles (3–)5–8(–10) mm. long; leaf-blades elliptic, oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate-elliptic, (3–)6–15(–25) cm. long, (1.5–)3–8(–12) cm. wide, obtuse or shortly obtusely acuminate, occasionally also mucronulate, cuneate, rounded or truncate at base, shallowly crenate to subentire, thinly coriaceous, lateral nerves (6–)8–14(–17) pairs, craspedodromous, slightly prominent above, prominent beneath, tertiary nerves subparallel, not or scarcely prominent, evenly pubescent along the midrib and otherwise sparingly pubescent above at first, later becoming almost glabrous, evenly puberulous beneath at first, later becoming sparingly minutely puberulous, glossy dark green above, paler and sometimes brownish beneath, with the midrib and nerves pellucid and pale green or reddish, often drying greenish grey above and fulvous beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules narrowly lanceolate, 5–10 mm. long, acute, pubescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers densely glomerulate. Female flowers:pedicels 1.5 mm. long, stout, pubescent; sepals broadly triangular, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, acute, sparingly pubescent to subglabrous without, glabrous within, greenish; petals elliptic, 1 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, subentire, glabrous; outer disc pentagonal, 1.5 mm. across, inner disc divided into 2 or 3 ± triangular usually pubescent laciniate lobes enclosing the ovary; ovary ovoid, 1.5–2 mm. long, 2–3-locular; styles 2–3, bifid, green. Male flowers:pedicels 1.5 mm. long, sparingly pubescent; sepals triangular, 2 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, acute, pubescent without at the base, otherwise glabrous, pale greenish-yellow or -cream; petals obtriangular, 0.5 mm. long, apically tridentate, keeled, white; disc annular, ± flat, 2 mm. across, subentire, glabrous, dull yellow-brown; staminal column 1 mm. high; filaments greenish white; anthers 0.8 mm. long, yellow; pistillode conical, 1 mm. tall, bifid at the apex.
    Bracts
    Bracts triangular, minute, acute, pubescent.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 1.5 mm. long, sparingly pubescent; sepals triangular, 2 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, acute, pubescent without at the base, otherwise glabrous, pale greenish-yellow or -cream; petals obtriangular, 0.5 mm. long, apically tridentate, keeled, white; disc annular, ± flat, 2 mm. across, subentire, glabrous, dull yellow-brown; staminal column 1 mm. high; filaments greenish white; anthers 0.8 mm. long, yellow; pistillode conical, 1 mm. tall, bifid at the apex.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 1.5 mm. long, stout, pubescent; sepals broadly triangular, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, acute, sparingly pubescent to subglabrous without, glabrous within, greenish; petals elliptic, 1 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, subentire, glabrous; outer disc pentagonal, 1.5 mm. across, inner disc divided into 2 or 3 ± triangular usually pubescent laciniate lobes enclosing the ovary; ovary ovoid, 1.5–2 mm. long, 2–3-locular; styles 2–3, bifid, green.
    Fruits
    Fruits obovoid-subglobose, obovoid-ellipsoid or ellipsoid, 1-locular by abortion, 0.8–1 cm. long, 0.5–0.6 cm. wide, green at first, then becoming flushed with reddish-brown or purplish, later becoming deep plum-coloured, violet, grape-purple or almost black, ± smooth.
    Seeds
    Seed 5 mm. long, smooth, somewhat shiny, brown.
    Habitat
    Locally common or often abundant in evergreen forest, generally at edges or in regrowth, associated bushland and thicket, and common along rivers, by lakes and swamps; 50–2300 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 from Senegal eastwards to C. Ethiopia and south to Angola and South Africa (Transkei)
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    An evergreen or deciduous, often much-branched, small tree up to 20 m high with a dense spreading crown and ± flattened or pendent branches arising from c. 2 m above ground.
    Trunk
    Trunk and branches with scattered blunt thorns.
    Bark
    Bark smooth and pale grey or pinkish-brown on branches, rough and dark grey or brown at base of trunk.
    Wood
    Wood hard, white.
    Twigs
    Twigs dark grey or brown, lenticellate.
    Shoots
    Young shoots and petioles evenly to sparingly pubescent or subglabrous.
    Petiole
    Petioles 5–13 mm long.
    Stipules
    Stipules 4–7 mm long, linear-lanceolate, acute, puberulous or pubescent.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 3–28 × 1.5–12 cm, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, shortly obtusely acuminate, rounded to cuneate at the base, subentire or very shallowly crenate, thinly coriaceous, sparingly pubescent to subglabrous along the midrib and main nerves above and beneath and otherwise ± glabrous above and minutely sparingly appressed-puberulous beneath, carmine-orange in young flush, dark or bright green and shiny above and paler below, with the nerves often pale yellow when mature, often drying greenish-grey above and light brown beneath; lateral nerves in 5–20 pairs, craspedodromous, slightly prominent above and beneath or somewhat more so beneath, tertiary nerves parallel or subparallel, not prominent.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 1 mm long, sparingly appressed-puberulous; sepals 2 × 1 mm, triangular-ovate, acute, appressed-puberulous without, glabrous within, greenish; petals 0.5 × 0.5 mm, obtriangular, apically tridentate, greenish-white; disk 2 mm in diameter, shallowly 5-lobed, ± flat, fleshy, glabrous; staminal column 1 mm high; filaments 0.5 mm long, narrowing apically; anthers 0.75 mm long, yellow; pistillode 0.5 mm tall, ± conical, shallowly lobed at the apex.
    Flowers
    Female flowers faintly scented, subsessile or shortly stoutly pedicellate; sepals triangular, pale grey-green, otherwise ± as in the male; petals 1 × 0.5 mm, elliptic, subentire; outer disk 1.5 mm in diameter, pentagonal; inner disk 3-lobed, the lobes erose at the apex, closely enfolding the ovary, reddish-brown; ovary c. 0.75 × 0.75 mm, ovoid-subglobose, 2–3-celled; styles 2–3, c. 0.75 mm long, ± free, bifid, stigmas smooth. Male flowers: pedicels 1 mm long, sparingly appressed-puberulous; sepals 2 × 1 mm, triangular-ovate, acute, appressed-puberulous without, glabrous within, greenish; petals 0.5 × 0.5 mm, obtriangular, apically tridentate, greenish-white; disk 2 mm in diameter, shallowly 5-lobed, ± flat, fleshy, glabrous; staminal column 1 mm high; filaments 0.5 mm long, narrowing apically; anthers 0.75 mm long, yellow; pistillode 0.5 mm tall, ± conical, shallowly lobed at the apex.
    Female
    Female flowers faintly scented, subsessile or shortly stoutly pedicellate; sepals triangular, pale grey-green, otherwise ± as in the male; petals 1 × 0.5 mm, elliptic, subentire; outer disk 1.5 mm in diameter, pentagonal; inner disk 3-lobed, the lobes erose at the apex, closely enfolding the ovary, reddish-brown; ovary c. 0.75 × 0.75 mm, ovoid-subglobose, 2–3-celled; styles 2–3, c. 0.75 mm long, ± free, bifid, stigmas smooth.
    Fruits
    Fruit 6–8 × 4–5 mm when dried, slightly larger when fresh, ellipsoid or occasionally subglobose, 1-locular by abortion, green at first, black when ripe.
    Seeds
    Seeds 5 × 3 mm, smooth, slightly shiny, brown.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2010 Etuge, M. [5290], Cameroon K000678387
    Jun 1, 2009 Pollard, B.J. [1393], Cameroon K000581898
    Mar 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13421], Cameroon K000541144
    Mar 1, 2008 Harvey, Y.B. [313], Cameroon K000541145
    Apr 1, 2002 Lane, P. [509], Cameroon K000026536
    Apr 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [10304], Cameroon K000026535
    Apr 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [8861], Cameroon K000026537
    Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1924], Cameroon K000026532
    Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [2738], Cameroon K000026533
    Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1394], Cameroon K000026534
    Jan 1, 1994 Cheek, M. [5891], Cameroon K000540109
    Jan 1, 1994 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [814], Cameroon K000540005
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [452], Cameroon K000085115
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [121], Cameroon K000085147
    Jan 1, 1993 Nkeng, P. [24], Cameroon K000085109
    Sep 1, 1955 Krauss [133], KwaZulu-Natal K000406079 isotype
    Milne-Redhead, E. [8811], Tanzania 24429.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [8679], Tanzania 24431.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [868], Uganda 2102.000
    Ash [1547], Ethiopia 35779.000
    Maitland, T.D. [248], Cameroon K000180569
    Maitland, T.D. [903], Cameroon K000180570
    Binuyo, A. [35593], Cameroon K000180578
    Hutchinson, J. [43], Cameroon K000180577
    Thomas, D.W. [3270], Cameroon K000180582
    Thomas, D.W. [3062], Cameroon K000180584
    Starin, E.D. [2] 40495.000
    Mann [883], Sierra Leone K000406034 Unknown type material
    Mann [883], Sierra Leone K000406035
    Welwitsch [371], Angola K000406086
    Wood, J.M. [1146], KwaZulu-Natal K000406080
    Wood, J.M. [1334], KwaZulu-Natal K000406078
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [1182], Tanzania K000406098
    Sieber [s.n.], Senegal K000406037
    Krauss [133], KwaZulu-Natal K000406077
    Heudelot [38], Senegal K000406036
    Roberty, G. [17124], Mali K000385807
    Adebusuyi, J.K. [44006], Cameroon K000180580
    Thompson, S.A. [1734], Cameroon K000180594
    Deistel, H. [615], Cameroon K000180572
    Harris, T. [113], Mozambique K000545096
    Timberlake, J. [5053], Mozambique K000613432
    Timberlake, J. [5160], Mozambique K000613540
    unknown [617], Cameroon K000180575
    Brunt, M.A. [191], Cameroon K000180579

    Bibliography

    First published in Adansonia 3: 164 (1863)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Breteler, F.J. (2012). Flore du Gabon 43: 1-107. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 179–182.
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 2: 36, t. 132
    • Chev. Bot. 554
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 620

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 2: 210, t. 63/1 (1983).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 251, t. 86.1 (1982)
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 194 (1962).
    • J. Léon. in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 8(1): 46 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 187 (1961).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 370 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 56 (1952).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 117 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 201 (1949).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 447 (1948).
    • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 47 (1936).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 43 (1921).
    • Jabl. in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147 (8): 78 (1915).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 620 (1912).
    • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 237 (1895).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 498 (1866).
    • Baill., Adansonia 3: 164 (1862–3).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0