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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Croton L.
      1. Croton alienus Pax

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A monoecious or ?dioecious shrub or small tree up to 4.5 m. tall.
    Twigs
    Young twigs evenly or sparingly scurfily stellate-pubescent. Older twigs greyish brown.
    Leaves
    Petiole 0.2–1.3(–2.4) cm. long, evenly to sparingly scurfily stellate-pubescent; leaf-blade oblong, elliptic-oblong, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, (4–)5–11(–13) cm. long, 1.5–4.5(–5.5) cm. wide, obtuse or subacute, rounded or subcuneate, with 2 sessile turbinate basal glands on the adaxial surface, remotely denticulate-serrulate, firmly chartaceous, completely penninerved, with 7–15 pairs of lateral nerves looped well within the margin, not or slightly prominent above and beneath, glabrous or almost so above, and glabrous beneath except for the sparingly stellate-pubescent midrib, drying greenish.
    Stipules
    Stipules linear-subulate, (2–)3–5(–6) mm. long, ± glabrous, subpersistent.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes terminal, subterminal or pseudaxillary, (2–)4–9(–11.5) cm. long, either all ♂, all ♀, or mostly ♂ with 1–2 ♀ flowers at the base; axis sparingly stellate-pubescent to subglabrous; bracts oblong-lanceolate, 2 mm. long, subacute or obtuse, subglabrous.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 3–4 mm. long, sparingly stellate-pubescent; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes broadly ovate, 2 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, rounded-obtuse, subglabrous without, glabrous within, puberulous at the apex, green, the lower part of the calyx sparingly stellate-pubescent without; petals 5, elliptic-oblong, 2 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous without except at the base, villous within and on lower margins, puberulous at the apex, greenish white; disc-glands free, rounded; stamens 11, filaments 2 mm. long, glabrous, anthers 1 mm. long; receptacle villous.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels (2–)4–5 mm. long, stouter than the ♂ pedicels, extending to 8 mm. in fruit, evenly to sparingly stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, broadly ovate, 3 mm. long,  2.5 mm. wide, obtuse, very sparingly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, minutely puberulous at the apex, green; petals 0–5, oblong, 2 mm. long, 0.75 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous without and within, villous on the margin towards the apex; disc of 5 very small free rounded glands; ovary subglobose, 2 mm. diameter, sparingly stellate-pubescent; styles 3, spreading, glabrous, bipartite almost to the base, the lobes filiform, 3 mm. long, creamy white. Male flowers:pedicels 3–4 mm. long, sparingly stellate-pubescent; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes broadly ovate, 2 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, rounded-obtuse, subglabrous without, glabrous within, puberulous at the apex, green, the lower part of the calyx sparingly stellate-pubescent without; petals 5, elliptic-oblong, 2 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous without except at the base, villous within and on lower margins, puberulous at the apex, greenish white; disc-glands free, rounded; stamens 11, filaments 2 mm. long, glabrous, anthers 1 mm. long; receptacle villous.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels (2–)4–5 mm. long, stouter than the ♂ pedicels, extending to 8 mm. in fruit, evenly to sparingly stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, broadly ovate, 3 mm. long,  2.5 mm. wide, obtuse, very sparingly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, minutely puberulous at the apex, green; petals 0–5, oblong, 2 mm. long, 0.75 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous without and within, villous on the margin towards the apex; disc of 5 very small free rounded glands; ovary subglobose, 2 mm. diameter, sparingly stellate-pubescent; styles 3, spreading, glabrous, bipartite almost to the base, the lobes filiform, 3 mm. long, creamy white.
    Fruits
    Fruit trilobed-ellipsoid, 1 cm. long, 0.8 cm. wide, septicidal, very sparingly stellate-pubescent or almost glabrous, green at first, becoming dark red or black when ripe.
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed-ellipsoid, 8 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, reddish brown streaked with buff, somewhat shiny, with a small caruncle 1.5 mm. wide.
    Figures
    Fig. 27.
    Habitat
    Upland dry evergreen forest; 1525–1825 m.
    Distribution
    K4 K5 not known elsewhere

    Distribution

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Croton alienus Pax appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 20, 1983 Stuhlmann [938], Kenya K000237588 isotype
    Aug 18, 1983 Balbo, P.G. [578], Kenya K000237593 syntype
    Aug 18, 1983 Balbo, P.G. [561], Kenya K000237594 syntype
    Gillett, J.B. [22807], Kenya K000237580
    Napier, E.R. [5944], Kenya K000237592
    Lawton, R.M. [1755], Kenya K000237586
    Trapnell, C.G. [2379], Kenya K000237581
    Bogdan, A. [AB2435], Kenya K000237591
    Beentje, H.J. [3862], Kenya K000237583
    Verdcourt, B. [2144], Kenya K000237582
    Armstrong, K. [B1418], Kenya K000237595
    Turner, A. [B7671], Kenya K000237590
    Mwangangi, O.M. [2126], Kenya K000237579
    Battiscombe, E. [449], Kenya K000237585
    Battiscombe, E. [17], Kenya K000237587
    Battiscombe, E. [449], Kenya K000237584
    Thomas, B.C. [28222], Kenya K000237589
    Adam, W. [1005], Kenya K000237596

    Bibliography

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 43: 80 (1909)

    Accepted by

    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 189 (1961).
    • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 51 (1936).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 48 (1921).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 764 (1912).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 43: 80 (1909).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0