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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Croton L.
      1. Croton bonplandianus Baill.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Bolivia to Uruguay.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A monoecious woody herb or shrub up to 1.5 m. in height, with branches whorled at the bases of the inflorescences.
    Shoots
    Young shoots evenly stellate-lepidote, older ones more sparingly so, greenish with purplish ribs.
    Leaves
    Petiole 0.5–1 cm. long, densely to evenly stellate-lepidote; leaf-blade lanceolate, 3–5 cm. long, 1–1.5 cm. wide, acute, rounded-cuneate, with 2 sessile discoid basal glands on the midrib beneath, crenate-serrate, membranaceous, penninerved, glabrous above, sparingly stellate-lepidote beneath, dark green. Leaves alternate, subopposite or whorled.
    Stipules
    Stipules subulate-filiform, 0.5 mm. long, glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes terminal, up to 12 cm. long, the lower quarter–half ♀, the upper half–three-quarters ♂; axis sparingly stellate-lepidote to subglabrous; bracts triangular, 1 mm. long, ciliate.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 1–1.5 mm. long, glabrous; buds globose, glabrous but with an apical tuft of hairs; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes elliptic-ovate, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, subacute, greenish; petals 5, oblong, recurved, 2 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous except for tufts of hairs on the margins towards the base, white; disc-glands free, compressed-subglobose, apiculate; stamens 13–16, filaments 2 mm. long, glabrous, anthers 0.3 mm. long; receptacle glabrous.
    Flowers
    Female flowers ± sessile; calyx-lobes 5, triangular-ovate, 1 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, subacute, not accrescent, subglabrous; petals 0; disc annular; ovary ellipsoid-subtrilobate, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. diameter, densely stellate-lepidote; styles 3, ± free, 1.5 mm. long, spreading, glabrous, bifid to about half way, the lobes filiform. Male flowers:pedicels 1–1.5 mm. long, glabrous; buds globose, glabrous but with an apical tuft of hairs; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes elliptic-ovate, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, subacute, greenish; petals 5, oblong, recurved, 2 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous except for tufts of hairs on the margins towards the base, white; disc-glands free, compressed-subglobose, apiculate; stamens 13–16, filaments 2 mm. long, glabrous, anthers 0.3 mm. long; receptacle glabrous.
    Female
    Female flowers ± sessile; calyx-lobes 5, triangular-ovate, 1 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, subacute, not accrescent, subglabrous; petals 0; disc annular; ovary ellipsoid-subtrilobate, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. diameter, densely stellate-lepidote; styles 3, ± free, 1.5 mm. long, spreading, glabrous, bifid to about half way, the lobes filiform.
    Fruits
    Fruit ellipsoid-trigonous, 5–6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, septicidal, sparingly stellate-lepidote.
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed-ellipsoid, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, grey, finely rugulose, slightly shiny, with a small bilobate caruncle.
    Habitat
    Ruderal; 500 m.
    Distribution
    native to S. Bolivia, Paraguay, SW. Brazil and N. Argentinaaccidentally introduced in Chittagong in 1897/8, from where it has spread widely in tropical AsiaNganga 108 is the first record for Africa K7

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, Paraguay, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Comoros, East Himalaya, India, Kenya, Laos, Malaya, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Pakistan, Rodrigues, Réunion, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, West Himalaya

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Croton bonplandianus Baill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Balansa, B. [1732], Paraguay Croton sparsiflorus K000254422
    Gibert [1074], Paraguay Croton sparsiflorus K000254423
    Morong, T. [43], Paraguay Croton sparsiflorus K000254421
    Tweedie [s.n] Croton pauperulus K000574044

    Bibliography

    First published in Adansonia 4: 339 (1864)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Berry, P.E., Kainulainen, K. & van Ee, B.W. (2017). A nomenclator of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) in Madagascar, the Comoros archipelago, and the Mascarene islands PhytoKeys 90: 1-87.
    • Pasha, M.K., Chakrabarthy, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2013). A taxonomic revision of Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Bangladesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 37: 379-389.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
    • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Tanaka, N., Koyama, T. & Murata, J. (2005). The flowering plants of Mt. Popa, central Myanmar - Results of Myanmar-Japanese joint expeditions, 2000-2004 Makinoa 5: 1-102.
    • Khan, B. & Khan, M.S. (2002). Taxonomic and distributional notes on the species Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 9(1): 77-80.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Berry, P.E., Kainulainen, K. & van Ee, B.W. (2017). A nomenclator of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) in Madagascar, the Comoros archipelago, and the Mascarene islands PhytoKeys 90: 1-87.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Tanaka, N., Koyama, T. & Murata, J. (2005). The flowering plants of Mt. Popa, central Myanmar - Results of Myanmar-Japanese joint expeditions, 2000-2004 Makinoa 5: 1-102.
    • Khan, B. & Khan, M.S. (2002). Taxonomic and distributional notes on the species Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 9(1): 77-80.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Baill., Adansonia 4: 339 (1863–4).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/