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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Croton L.
      1. Croton gratissimus Burch.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A shrub or tree up to 12 m tall, monoecious or sometimes dioecious; trunk usually Y-forked with drooping branches; crown sparse, open, rounded or ± pyramidal.
    Bole
    Bole up to 40 cm d.b.h.; bark rough and longitudinally or rectangularly fissured on lower trunk, smooth on upper trunk, dark grey to pale brownish-grey, patterned.
    Branches
    Branches often in whorls of 3.Young twigs rusty-lepidote to fulvous stellate-lepidote.
    Stipules
    Stipules 1.5–7 mm long, subulate-filiform.
    Petiole
    Petioles 0.5–7 cm long.
    Leaves
    Leaves aromatic when crushed; blades 1.5–18 × 0.5–6 cm, elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate or narrowly oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, obtuse or emarginate at the apex, entire, rounded to shallowly cordulate or cordate at the base, with a pair of sessile to long-stalked basal glands on the lower surface, or less often on the sides or upper surface of the petiole apex, chartaceous to thinly coriaceous, glabrous and deep green to midgreen or stellate-pubescent and olive-green on the upper surface, densely silvery-lepidote and rusty-flecked or fulvous stellate-lepidote beneath; midrib usually impressed above, prominent beneath; lateral nerves in 8–17 pairs, not prominent above, scarcely so to often invisible beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 1–15 cm long, erect at first, later drooping, terminal, androgynous or all male; axis angular; bracts 2–3(5) mm long, subulate, soon falling.
    Male
    Male flowers fragrant; pedicels 1–3(5) mm long; buds 1.5–3.5 mm in diameter, subglobose, yellowish-lepidote; sepals 5, 4 × 2.5 mm, ovate, densely tawny-lepidote or rusty-lepidote without, stellate-pubescent within, greenish-yellow; petals 5, 4 × 1.5 mm, elliptic-oblong, sparingly rusty-lepidote without, puberulous within, ciliate, pale creamy-yellow to whitish; disk glands 5, truncate, glabrous; stamens 17–22, filaments 3–4 mm long, sparingly gland-dotted, otherwise glabrous, pale yellow, anthers 1.5 mm long, with a broad glandular connective, yellow; receptacle pubescent.
    Flowers
    Female flowers: pedicels 2–3 mm long, extending to 5 mm in fruit, stouter than the male, densely lepidote; sepals and petals ± as in the male; disk scarcely distinguishable; staminodes 4–5, 1.5 mm long, subulate-filiform; ovary 2.5 mm in diameter, globose, densely brown-lepidote; styles 3, 1 mm long, spreading, 2-partite with irregularly multifid segments, abaxially lepidote, adaxially glabrous, dull dark purple. Male flowers fragrant; pedicels 1–3(5) mm long; buds 1.5–3.5 mm in diameter, subglobose, yellowish-lepidote; sepals 5, 4 × 2.5 mm, ovate, densely tawny-lepidote or rusty-lepidote without, stellate-pubescent within, greenish-yellow; petals 5, 4 × 1.5 mm, elliptic-oblong, sparingly rusty-lepidote without, puberulous within, ciliate, pale creamy-yellow to whitish; disk glands 5, truncate, glabrous; stamens 17–22, filaments 3–4 mm long, sparingly gland-dotted, otherwise glabrous, pale yellow, anthers 1.5 mm long, with a broad glandular connective, yellow; receptacle pubescent.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 2–3 mm long, extending to 5 mm in fruit, stouter than the male, densely lepidote; sepals and petals ± as in the male; disk scarcely distinguishable; staminodes 4–5, 1.5 mm long, subulate-filiform; ovary 2.5 mm in diameter, globose, densely brown-lepidote; styles 3, 1 mm long, spreading, 2-partite with irregularly multifid segments, abaxially lepidote, adaxially glabrous, dull dark purple.
    Fruits
    Fruits 8–10 × 8–11 mm, trilobate-subglobose, septicidal, densely greenish- or yellowish- to silvery-lepidote, brown-flecked.
    Seeds
    Seeds 7 × 5.5 × 3 mm, compressed-ellipsoid, smooth, slightly shiny, light brown; caruncle 1.5 mm wide, pentagonal, flattened.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    English
    Camphor bush, Lavender fever-berry

    Other Data

    Croton gratissimus Burch. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7016], Cameroon K000026637
    Jun 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [538], Cameroon K000026638
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000347466 Unknown type material
    Welwitsch [341], Angola K000347469 Unknown type material
    Garcia, R. [11938], Mozambique K000347467
    Garcia, R. [11938], Mozambique K000347468
    Burchell, W.J. [2493-2], South Africa K000422614
    Burchell, W.J. [2154], South Africa K000422613 Unknown type material
    Burchell, W.J. [2631], South Africa K000422615

    Bibliography

    First published in Trav. S. Africa 2: 263 (1824)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Bamps, P. (2009). Croton gratissimus (Euphorbiaceae), nouveau pour la flore du Congo-Kinshasa Systematics and Geography of Plants 79: 248-250.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Bamps, P. (2009). Croton gratissimus (Euphorbiaceae), nouveau pour la flore du Congo-Kinshasa Systematics and Geography of Plants 79: 248-250.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/