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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Croton L.
      1. Croton leuconeurus Pax

        This species is accepted, and its native range is South Sudan to Caprivi Strip.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 3–5 mm long; sepals 5, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm, oblong-lanceolate, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, puberulous at apex, green; petals 5, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm, elliptic, glabrous without, villous within, creamy-yellow in colour; disk glands 5, free, truncate; stamens 15–20, filaments 3 mm long, glabrous, yellow-green, anthers 0.75 mm long; receptacle pilose.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 1–2 mm long, scarcely extending in fruit, stout, densely fulvous stellate-tomentose; sepals 5, 1.5–4 × 0.75–1 mm, slightly accrescent in fruit, lanceolate, otherwise as in male flowers; petals 0–5, 1–2 mm long, linear to filiform, villous on the margin, otherwise glabrous; disk shallowly 5-lobed, pubescent; ovary 2 mm in diameter, subglobose, densely stellate-tomentose; styles 3, 4 mm long, deeply 2-partite with filiform segments, subpersistent, brownish.
    Infructescences
    Infructescences pendent.
    Fruits
    Fruits 9–14 × 9–12 mm, trilobate-subglobose or obovoid, scurfily stellate-pubescent, yellowish to buff; endocarp thinly crustaceous, breaking up irregularly (frangent).Seeds 8 × 6 × 3.5 mm, compressed ovoid-trigonous, adaxially light brown, abaxially buff and brown-flecked or mottled, dull, ecarunculate.
    Habit
    A shrub, or tree up to 15 m tall, often several-stemmed and with a dense spreading crown, monoecious or dioecious.
    Bole
    Bole clean, up to 30 cm in diameter.
    Bark
    Bark smooth, grey- and white-blotched.
    Branches
    Branches drooping.
    Twigs
    Twigs grey-green pubescent with dark grey to blackish stellate hairs.
    Stipules
    Stipules 6–7 mm long, linear to linear-lanceolate, sparingly pubescent, soon falling.
    Petiole
    Petioles 1.5–6 cm long, with 2 stipitate or± sessile orange discoid glands at the apex.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 3–14 × 2–8.5 cm, elliptic-ovate, gradually acuminate at the apex, glandular crenate-serrate on the margins, the glands conoidal on the teeth, and discoid (when present) in the sinuses, cuneate to rounded or truncate at the base, chartaceous to thinly coriaceous, usually penninerved (palminerved in subsp. mossambicensis) with 7–17 pairs of usually conspicuous pale lateral slightly prominent nerves, densely or evenly, rarely sparingly, stellate-pubescent when young, glabrescent on upper surface and sometimes beneath, or remaining softly whitish stellate-pilose beneath, deep dull green to pale yellowish-green on upper surface, turning red prior to falling, often drying blackish (greenish-brown in subsp. mossambicensis).Racemes (3)6–20 cm long, terminal on the main axis or terminating lateral shoots, male, female or androgynous; axes usually densely stellate-pubescent; bracts 3–5 mm long, linear-lanceolate, evenly stellate-pubescent to subglabrous, the male bracts several-flowered, the androgynous bracts few-flowered, the female bracts 1-flowered, soon falling.
    Flowers
    Flowers scented. Female flowers: pedicels 1–2 mm long, scarcely extending in fruit, stout, densely fulvous stellate-tomentose; sepals 5, 1.5–4 × 0.75–1 mm, slightly accrescent in fruit, lanceolate, otherwise as in male flowers; petals 0–5, 1–2 mm long, linear to filiform, villous on the margin, otherwise glabrous; disk shallowly 5-lobed, pubescent; ovary 2 mm in diameter, subglobose, densely stellate-tomentose; styles 3, 4 mm long, deeply 2-partite with filiform segments, subpersistent, brownish. Male flowers: pedicels 3–5 mm long; sepals 5, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm, oblong-lanceolate, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, puberulous at apex, green; petals 5, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm, elliptic, glabrous without, villous within, creamy-yellow in colour; disk glands 5, free, truncate; stamens 15–20, filaments 3 mm long, glabrous, yellow-green, anthers 0.75 mm long; receptacle pilose.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A monoecious small tree up to 10 m. tall.
    Twigs
    Young twigs densely to sparingly white or greyish stellate-pubescent, at length glabrescent, or almost or quite glabrous. Older twigs dark brown, sparingly lenticellate.
    Bark
    Bark smooth, grey or with patches of grey and white.
    Leaves
    Petiole 1.5–3(–5) cm. long, densely stellate-pubescent to quite glabrous; leaf-blade elliptic-ovate or elliptic, 4–15 cm. long, 2.5–8 cm. wide, obtusely acuminate, rounded at the base, with 2 stipitate cupular orange basal glands situated towards the adaxial surface, glandular crenate-serrate, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, penninerved, with 7–15 pairs of conspicuous whitish lateral nerves, slightly prominent above and beneath, evenly stellate-pubescent above when young, rapidly becoming almost or quite glabrous, densely so beneath when young, and either remaining so or else becoming ± glabrous, often drying blackish above.
    Stipules
    Stipules linear or linear-lanceolate, 3–6 mm. long, glandular at the base, sparingly stellate-pubescent, readily deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes terminal or subterminal, 5–18 cm. long, either mostly ♂ with a few ♀ flowers at the base or scattered amongst the ♂’s, or with the lower half or two-thirds ♀ and the upper half or third ♂; axis densely to sparingly stellate-pubescent; bracts linear-lanceolate, 3–5 mm. long, acute, evenly stellate-pubescent, readily deci-duous.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 2–5 mm. long, evenly to sparingly stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, oblong-lanceolate, 2–3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, obtuse, sparingly stellate-pubescent to subglabrous without, glabrous within, puberulous at the apex, green; petals 5, elliptic, 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, obtuse or subacute, ± glabrous without, villous within and on the margins, cream-coloured; disc-glands 5, free, ± truncate; stamens 20, filaments 3 mm. long, glabrous, yellow-green, anthers 0.8 mm. long; receptacle pilose.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels 1–2 mm. long, stouter than the ♂ pedicels, scarcely extending in fruit, densely whitish stellate-tomentose; sepals 5, lanceolate, 1.5 mm. long, 0.75 mm. wide, slightly accrescent in fruit, subacute, sparingly or evenly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, minutely puberulous at the apex, greenish; petals 0–5, linear, 1.5–2 mm. long, 0.3–0.5 mm. wide, subacute, ± glabrous without and within, villous on the margin; disc 5-lobed, the lobes rounded, pubescent; ovary globose, 2 mm. diameter, densely stellate-tomentose; styles 3, spreading-recurved, bipartite almost to the base, the lobes filiform, 3 mm. long. Male flowers:pedicels 2–5 mm. long, evenly to sparingly stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, oblong-lanceolate, 2–3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, obtuse, sparingly stellate-pubescent to subglabrous without, glabrous within, puberulous at the apex, green; petals 5, elliptic, 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, obtuse or subacute, ± glabrous without, villous within and on the margins, cream-coloured; disc-glands 5, free, ± truncate; stamens 20, filaments 3 mm. long, glabrous, yellow-green, anthers 0.8 mm. long; receptacle pilose.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 1–2 mm. long, stouter than the ♂ pedicels, scarcely extending in fruit, densely whitish stellate-tomentose; sepals 5, lanceolate, 1.5 mm. long, 0.75 mm. wide, slightly accrescent in fruit, subacute, sparingly or evenly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, minutely puberulous at the apex, greenish; petals 0–5, linear, 1.5–2 mm. long, 0.3–0.5 mm. wide, subacute, ± glabrous without and within, villous on the margin; disc 5-lobed, the lobes rounded, pubescent; ovary globose, 2 mm. diameter, densely stellate-tomentose; styles 3, spreading-recurved, bipartite almost to the base, the lobes filiform, 3 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruits subglobose, 0.9–1.4 cm. long, 0.9–1.1 cm. wide, crustaceous, breaking up irregularly, densely scurfily stellate-pubescent, buff-coloured.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, 6–9 mm. long, 4–8 mm. wide, buff-coloured, dull, ecarunculate.
    Habitat
    Riverine forest; 1150–1250 m.
    Distribution
    T1 T4

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Mozambique, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Other Data

    Croton leuconeurus Pax appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 1956 Schweinfurth, G. [2831], Sudan K000347436 isotype
    Schweinfurth, G. [2831], Sudan K000347437 Unknown type material
    Gibbs, L. [109], Mozambique K000347479

    Bibliography

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 15: 533 (1893)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Bamps, P. (2009). Croton gratissimus (Euphorbiaceae), nouveau pour la flore du Congo-Kinshasa Systematics and Geography of Plants 79: 248-250.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 196 (1962).
    • J. Léonard, Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 8(1): 81 (1962).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 61 (1952).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 48 (1921).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 767 (1912).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 15: 533 (1893).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0