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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Croton L.
      1. Croton longipedicellatus J.Léonard

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to Caprivi Strip.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A monoecious shrub or small tree up to 4.5 m. in height.
    Twigs
    Older twigs dark purplish grey. Young twigs slender, sparingly silvery laciniate-lepidote.
    Leaves
    Leaves aromatic. Petiole 1.5–4 cm. long, sparingly laciniate-lepidote to subglabrous; blade elliptic-ovate, 3–9(–12) cm. long, (1–)2–4.5(–6.5) cm. wide, obtusely caudate-acuminate, rounded or cuneate, with 2 usually long-stipitate cup-shaped basal glands clearly visible from above, shallowly serrulate to subentire, thinly chartaceous, 5-nerved from the base, the innermost pair often ascending half the length of the blade, remaining lateral nerves 4–5 pairs, not prominent above, slightly prominent beneath, evenly to densely laciniate-lepidote above and beneath at first, later becoming very sparingly so or subglabrous above, and sparingly to evenly so beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules filiform, 2–7(–13) mm. long, ± glabrous, deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes terminal or subterminal, 7–10 cm. long, all ♂, all ♀, or mostly ♂ with 1–2 ♀ flowers at the base to mostly ♀ with a few ♂ flowers at the top; axis sparingly laciniate-lepidote; bracts linear or linear-oblanceolate, 1–3 mm. long, ± glabrous.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 5–8 mm. long, sparingly laciniate-lepidote; sepals 5, elliptic-ovate, 2 mm. long, 1.3 mm. wide, subacute or obtuse, glabrous without and within, ciliate, densely so toward the apex, yellowish; petals 5, elliptic-oblong, 2.3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous without and within, long-ciliate at the base, shortly and more densely so at the apex, yellow; disc-glands free, rounded; stamens 14–17, filaments 1.7–2 mm. long, glabrous, anthers 1 mm. long; receptacle villous.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels (0.2–)0.5–1.5 cm. long, slightly thicker than the ♂ pedicels, extending to (0.4–)1–2(–3) cm. in fruit, sparingly laciniate-lepidote; sepals 5, oblanceolate-oblong, 3–3.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, accrescent to 5–6 mm. long and 1.5 mm. wide in fruit, obtuse, with a midrib but without lateral nerves, sparingly laciniate-lepidote without, subglabrous or glabrous within, yellow-green; petals 0; disc shallowly 5-lobed, the lobes rounded, ± glabrous; ovary subglobose, 1.5–2 mm. diameter, densely laciniate-lepidote; styles 3, ascending-erect, lacin-iate-lepidote at the base, otherwise glabrous, deeply bipartite, the lobes filiform, ± 2 mm. long. Male flowers:pedicels 5–8 mm. long, sparingly laciniate-lepidote; sepals 5, elliptic-ovate, 2 mm. long, 1.3 mm. wide, subacute or obtuse, glabrous without and within, ciliate, densely so toward the apex, yellowish; petals 5, elliptic-oblong, 2.3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous without and within, long-ciliate at the base, shortly and more densely so at the apex, yellow; disc-glands free, rounded; stamens 14–17, filaments 1.7–2 mm. long, glabrous, anthers 1 mm. long; receptacle villous.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels (0.2–)0.5–1.5 cm. long, slightly thicker than the ♂ pedicels, extending to (0.4–)1–2(–3) cm. in fruit, sparingly laciniate-lepidote; sepals 5, oblanceolate-oblong, 3–3.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, accrescent to 5–6 mm. long and 1.5 mm. wide in fruit, obtuse, with a midrib but without lateral nerves, sparingly laciniate-lepidote without, subglabrous or glabrous within, yellow-green; petals 0; disc shallowly 5-lobed, the lobes rounded, ± glabrous; ovary subglobose, 1.5–2 mm. diameter, densely laciniate-lepidote; styles 3, ascending-erect, lacin-iate-lepidote at the base, otherwise glabrous, deeply bipartite, the lobes filiform, ± 2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit subglobose, 4.5–5 mm. long, 4.5–6 mm. diameter, septicidal, evenly to sparingly laciniate-lepidote, greenish at first, becoming blackish.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, 4–4.5 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, greyish brown, shiny, with a pale yellow caruncle 1.2 mm. wide.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A weak, lax, spreading or scrambling shrub or small tree up to 4.5 m tall, monoecious or sometimes dioecious.
    Bark
    Bark light grey-brown.
    Twigs
    Twigs dark grey.
    Indumentum
    Young growth sparingly to evenly stellate-pubescent, scurfily so or not, patent or appressed, or fimbriate-lepidote.
    Stipules
    Stipules 0.3–1.3 cm long, filiform, soon falling.
    Petiole
    Petioles 1.5–5.5 cm long, basally geniculate.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 2–12.5 × 1–7 cm, ovate to elliptic-ovate, acuminate at the apex, shallowly serrulate to subentire on the margin, usually rounded or cuneate, rarely truncate or shallowly cordate at the base, with a pair of usually long-stipitate discoid glands at or near the base on lower surface, thinly chartaceous, sparingly appressed scurfily stellate-pubescent, or hairs with a patent central ray, to fimbriate-lepidote or subglabrous on upper surface, and sparingly to evenly so beneath; 3–5-nerved from the base, lateral nerves in 3–5 pairs, scarcely to slightly prominent beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 3–17 cm long, terminal or subterminal, androgynous, or male or female on the same or different branches or plants; bracts 1–2 mm long, linear-spathulate to filiform.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 5–8 mm long; sepals 5, 2 × 1.25 mm, elliptic-ovate, sparingly appressed stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, ciliate, yellowish- or greenish-cream; petals 5, 2 × 1 mm, oblanceolate-oblong, ciliate but otherwise glabrous, yellow; disk glands 5, rounded-subemarginate, fleshy, glabrous; stamens 14–17, filaments 2 mm long, glabrous, anthers c. 1 mm long, yellow; receptacle densely pubescent.
    Flowers
    Female flowers: pedicels 2–10 mm long, extending to up to 2.5 cm in fruit or not extending; sepals 5, 2.5–3 × 1 mm, accrescent to 7 × 2 mm in fruit, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, becoming oblong-subspathulate and somewhat foliaceous, sparingly appressed stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, pale green; petals absent; disk shallowly 5-lobed, the lobes opposite the sepals, rounded, glabrous; ovary 1–1.5 × 1–1.5 mm, subglobose, densely silvery fimbriate-lepidote; styles 3, 2 mm long, connate at the base, divaricate-ascending, deeply 2-partite, the segments filiform, sparingly appressed-stellate-pubescent basally, otherwise glabrous. Male flowers: pedicels 5–8 mm long; sepals 5, 2 × 1.25 mm, elliptic-ovate, sparingly appressed stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, ciliate, yellowish- or greenish-cream; petals 5, 2 × 1 mm, oblanceolate-oblong, ciliate but otherwise glabrous, yellow; disk glands 5, rounded-subemarginate, fleshy, glabrous; stamens 14–17, filaments 2 mm long, glabrous, anthers c. 1 mm long, yellow; receptacle densely pubescent.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 2–10 mm long, extending to up to 2.5 cm in fruit or not extending; sepals 5, 2.5–3 × 1 mm, accrescent to 7 × 2 mm in fruit, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, becoming oblong-subspathulate and somewhat foliaceous, sparingly appressed stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, pale green; petals absent; disk shallowly 5-lobed, the lobes opposite the sepals, rounded, glabrous; ovary 1–1.5 × 1–1.5 mm, subglobose, densely silvery fimbriate-lepidote; styles 3, 2 mm long, connate at the base, divaricate-ascending, deeply 2-partite, the segments filiform, sparingly appressed-stellate-pubescent basally, otherwise glabrous.
    Fruits
    Fruits 5–7 × 4–7 mm, ovoid-subglobose to trilobate-subglobose, septicidal, evenly to sparingly fimbriate-lepidote, greenish becoming blackish.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4–4.5 × 2.5–3 × 2 mm, ellipsoid, verruculose, shiny, light greyish-brown with darker warts; caruncle 2 mm wide, 2-partite, yellowish.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Caprivi Strip, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Other Data

    Croton longipedicellatus J.Léonard appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Bredo, J. [3743], Congo, DRC K000347430 isotype

    Bibliography

    First published in Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 26: 387 (1956)

    Accepted by

    • Bamps, P. (2009). Croton gratissimus (Euphorbiaceae), nouveau pour la flore du Congo-Kinshasa Systematics and Geography of Plants 79: 248-250.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 197 (1962).
    • J. Léon. in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 8(1): 66 (1962).
    • J. Léon. in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 26: 387 (1956)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0