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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Croton L.
      1. Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Delile

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A dioecious or sometimes monoecious shrub or spreading tree up to 25 m. tall, although more commonly 6–12 m. tall.
    Bark
    Bark light or dark grey, finely to deeply longitudinally fissured.
    Twigs
    Older twigs greyish brown. Young twigs sparsely, evenly or densely greyish ± adpressed stellate-pubescent, the hairs often with a projecting central ray.
    Leaves
    Petioles 1.5–11 cm. long, usually sparingly stellate-pubescent, sometimes either densely so or almost glabrous; leaf-blade broadly ovate to elliptic-ovate, 4–15(–20) cm. long, 2.5–10(–13) cm. wide, obtusely or subacutely acuminate, rounded or cordate, with 2–4(–8) subsessile or stipitate discoid basal glands visible or not from above, crenulate-serrulate to subentire, thinly to firmly chartaceous, 5–7(–9)-nerved from the base, remaining lateral nerves 4–8(–11) pairs, usually fairly prominent beneath, densely fulvous (above) and greyish (beneath) stellate-pubescent at first, later becoming evenly or sparingly adpressed stellate-pubescent and dark green above, and evenly or sparingly greyish hirsute-stellate-pubescent beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules linear or linear-subulate, 5–14 mm. long, entire or with a few subulate lateral lobes, sparingly stellate-pubescent or subglabrous, caducous.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes terminal, (7–)15–32 cm. long, up to 3 cm. wide, either all ♂ or all ♀, or mostly ♂ with a few ♀ flowers at the base, or sometimes half ♂ and half ♀ or mostly ♀ with a few ♂ flowers at the top, the ♂ flowers in clusters along the axis, the ♀’s usually solitary within the bracts, or with 1 ♀ flower accompanied by 1 or more ♂ flowers per cluster; axis densely stellate-strigose, or evenly or sparingly stellate-pubescent; bracts linear, 2–3(–5) mm. long, sparingly pubescent or subglabrous.
    Flowers
    Male flowers:pedicels 4–10(–14) mm. long, densely stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, ovate, 3 mm. long, 2.5 mm. broad, obtuse, stellate-pubescent without, pubescent within at the middle and towards the apex, pale green; petals 5, oblanceolate-oblong, 3.5 mm. long, 1.5–2 mm. wide, obtuse, ± glabrous without, densely villous within and on the margin, pale yellow; disc-glands rounded, hairy; stamens 15–20, filaments 4 mm. long, villous in the lower half, anthers 1 mm. long; receptacle densely villous. Female flowers:pedicels 2–5(–8) mm. long, stouter than the ♂ pedicels, scarcely elongating in fruit, densely fulvous stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. broad, obtuse, evenly stellate-pubescent without, sparingly stellate-pilose within; petals 0, or, if present, linear and smaller than in the ♂ flowers; staminodes 0–1(–2), filament-like; disc-glands free, ± truncate; ovary trigonous, 2 mm. diameter, densely fulvous adpressed stellate-pubescent-sublepidote; styles 3(–4), spreading, 2.5 mm. long, pubescent at the base, otherwise glabrous, deeply bipartite, the lobes linear, sometimes bifid at the apex, 2 mm. long.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 4–10(–14) mm. long, densely stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, ovate, 3 mm. long, 2.5 mm. broad, obtuse, stellate-pubescent without, pubescent within at the middle and towards the apex, pale green; petals 5, oblanceolate-oblong, 3.5 mm. long, 1.5–2 mm. wide, obtuse, ± glabrous without, densely villous within and on the margin, pale yellow; disc-glands rounded, hairy; stamens 15–20, filaments 4 mm. long, villous in the lower half, anthers 1 mm. long; receptacle densely villous.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 2–5(–8) mm. long, stouter than the ♂ pedicels, scarcely elongating in fruit, densely fulvous stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. broad, obtuse, evenly stellate-pubescent without, sparingly stellate-pilose within; petals 0, or, if present, linear and smaller than in the ♂ flowers; staminodes 0–1(–2), filament-like; disc-glands free, ± truncate; ovary trigonous, 2 mm. diameter, densely fulvous adpressed stellate-pubescent-sublepidote; styles 3(–4), spreading, 2.5 mm. long, pubescent at the base, otherwise glabrous, deeply bipartite, the lobes linear, sometimes bifid at the apex, 2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit subtrilobed, rarely 4-lobed, often more particularly so at the apex, 8–9 mm. long, 8–10(–15) mm. wide, loculicidal, evenly stellate-pubescent-sublepidote.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, 7 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, longitudinally rugulose, grey, somewhat shiny, with a large waxy caruncle 4.5 mm. long and 4 mm. wide.
    Habitat
    Common in secondary forest and at forest edges, along rivers and around lakes, also in various associations near forest; 200–2300 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T4 T5 T7 U1 U2 more or less throughout tropical Africa from Guinée eastwards to Ethiopia and southwards to Angola, Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A tree up to 30 m tall, dioecious or sometimes monoecious; crown much-branched, spreading, rounded.
    Bole
    Bole up to 1.8 m in circumference.
    Bark
    Bark smooth to closely reticulate, pale grey or greyish-brown, slightly corky.
    Twigs
    Young twigs, petioles and inflorescence axes densely, evenly or sparingly greyish appressed or patent stellate-pubescent, later glabrescent and becoming dark grey-brown and lenticellate.
    Stipules
    Stipules 5–7 mm long, linear to filiform-setaceous, soon falling.
    Petiole
    Petioles 3–12 cm long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 6–18 × 4–14 cm, ovate, acuminate at the apex, shallowly crenate-serrate to subentire on the margins, cordate or subcordate at the base with a pair of shortly stipitate to subsessile basal discoid glands on the lower surface, chartaceous, sparingly appressed stellate-pubescent to fimbriate-lepidote above, and sparingly to densely so or patent stellate-tomentose beneath; 5–7-nerved from the base, lateral nerves in 4–9 pairs, ± prominent beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes up to 35 cm long, terminal, usually androgynous, sometimes male or female; bracts shorter than the stipules but otherwise resembling the stipules.
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant. Female flowers: pedicels 2–5 mm long, not or scarcely extending in fruit, stout, densely stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, 3–3.5 × 1.5–2 mm, ovate-lanceolate, evenly stellate-lepidote without, sparingly stellate-pubescent within, grey-green; petals 0 or 5, 0.5–1 mm long, linear to subulate, subglabrous; disk 5-lobed, the lobes truncate, pubescent; ovary 2 mm in diameter, trigonous or quadrangular, densely lepidote; styles 3–4, 3 mm long, spreading, 2-partite with the segments filiform-linear, minutely puberulous. Male flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 cm long; sepals 5, 3 × 2–2.5 mm, ovate, stellate-lepidote without, pubescent within, pale green; petals 5, 3–3.5 × 1.5–2 mm, oblanceolate-oblong, subglabrous without, villous within and on the margin, pale creamy-yellow in colour; disk glands rounded, pilose; stamens 15–20, filaments 4 mm long, villous below, anthers c. 1 mm long; receptacle densely villous.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 cm long; sepals 5, 3 × 2–2.5 mm, ovate, stellate-lepidote without, pubescent within, pale green; petals 5, 3–3.5 × 1.5–2 mm, oblanceolate-oblong, subglabrous without, villous within and on the margin, pale creamy-yellow in colour; disk glands rounded, pilose; stamens 15–20, filaments 4 mm long, villous below, anthers c. 1 mm long; receptacle densely villous.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 2–5 mm long, not or scarcely extending in fruit, stout, densely stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, 3–3.5 × 1.5–2 mm, ovate-lanceolate, evenly stellate-lepidote without, sparingly stellate-pubescent within, grey-green; petals 0 or 5, 0.5–1 mm long, linear to subulate, subglabrous; disk 5-lobed, the lobes truncate, pubescent; ovary 2 mm in diameter, trigonous or quadrangular, densely lepidote; styles 3–4, 3 mm long, spreading, 2-partite with the segments filiform-linear, minutely puberulous.
    Fruits
    Fruits 0.8–1 × 0.8–1.5 cm, trilobate or quadrilobate, loculicidal or septicidal, densely to evenly scurfily stellate-pubescent, pale greyish-green.
    Seeds
    Seeds 7 × 4 mm, ellipsoid, rugulose, grey; caruncle 4.5 × 4 mm, waxy.
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A tree, in savannah, up to 30–50 ft high
    Flowers
    Flowers white
    Fruits
    Fruit slightly 3-lobed, about 1/2 in. diam.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Delile appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2643], Cameroon K000437550
    Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [4365], Cameroon K000026636
    Sep 1, 1999 Etuge, M. [2241], Cameroon K000338875
    Apr 1, 1999 Etuge, M. [3496 a], Cameroon K000338878
    Mar 1, 1997 Zapfack, L. [1157], Cameroon K000338877
    Mar 1, 1997 Munyenyembe, P. [807], Cameroon K000338876
    Feb 1, 1984 Schimper [1665], Ethiopia K000347439 Unknown type material
    Feb 1, 1984 Schimper [1665], Ethiopia K000347438 isotype
    Feb 1, 1984 Schimper [196], Ethiopia K000347440
    Feb 1, 1984 Schimper [1134], Ethiopia K000347441
    Feb 1, 1984 Schimper [1134], Ethiopia K000347442 Unknown type material
    Keay, R.W.J. [28334], Cameroon K000008277
    Keay, R.W.J. [28334], Cameroon K000008278
    Ash [399], Ethiopia 13369.022
    Andrews, F.W. [1945], Sudan 2107.000
    Chevalier, A. [20979], Guinea K000347403
    Chevalier, A. [20979], Guinea K000347404
    Saxer, A. [23], Cameroon K000008271
    Saxer, A. [23], Cameroon K000008272
    Brunt, M.A. [449], Cameroon K000008274
    Daramola, B. O. [FHI 41570], Cameroon K000008273

    Bibliography

    First published in Voy. Abyssinie 3: 158 (1848)

    Accepted by

    • Berry, P.E., Kainulainen, K. & van Ee, B.W. (2017). A nomenclator of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) in Madagascar, the Comoros archipelago, and the Mascarene islands PhytoKeys 90: 1-87.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Bamps, P. (2009). Croton gratissimus (Euphorbiaceae), nouveau pour la flore du Congo-Kinshasa Systematics and Geography of Plants 79: 248-250.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 193–196, t. 36, 4–5.
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 772
    • in Ferret & Galinier Voy. Abyss. 3: 158 (1847)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 2: 216, t. 65/2 (1983).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 256, t. 88.2 (1982)
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 196 (1962).
    • J. Léonard, Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 8(1): 62 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 191 (1961).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 394 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 60 (1952).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 120 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 205 (1949).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 449 (1948).
    • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony ed. 2: 51 (1936).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 49 (1921).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 772 (1912).
    • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 237 (1895).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 528 (1866).
    • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 251 (1851), as ‘macrostachys’.
    • Del in Ferret & Galin., Voy. Abyss. 3: 158 (1848).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0