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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Croton L.
      1. Croton menyharthii Pax

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Ethiopia to KwaZulu-Natal.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A much-branched shrub or small tree up to 4 m tall, monoecious or sometimes dioecious.
    Bark
    Bark smooth, brownish-grey.
    Twigs
    Young twigs densely stellate-lepidote.
    Stipules
    Stipules 1 mm long, subulate, lepidote, soon falling.
    Petiole
    Petioles 2–10 mm long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 1–9.2 × 0.5–4 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or emarginate at the apex, entire, rounded to shallowly cordate at the base, with a pair of minute stipitate basal glands beneath, thinly chartaceous, sparingly stellate-pubescent and dark green on upper surface, silvery or yellowish-lepidote beneath, bright orange on dying; lateral nerves in 7–12 pairs, slightly prominent beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 1–6 cm long, terminal on short lateral shoots, androgynous or all male; bracts c. 1 mm long.
    Flowers
    Male flowers: pedicels 4–5 mm long; sepals 5, 2 × 1.5 mm, ovate, lepidote without, glabrous within, pale yellowish-green; petals 5, 2.5 × 0.75 mm, linear-oblanceolate to oblong, ciliate but otherwise glabrous, pale yellowish-cream; disk glands 5, truncate, fleshy, glabrous; stamens 15, filaments 2 mm long, glabrous except at the base, anthers 0.5 mm long with a broad connective, pale yellow; receptacle pilose. Female flowers: pedicels 2–4 mm long, stouter than in the male, densely lepidote; sepals 5, c. 2 × 1 mm, triangular-ovate, otherwise as in the male; petals absent; disk 5-lobed, the lobes truncate, glabrous; ovary 1.5 mm in diameter, subglobose, densely yellowish-lepidote; styles 3, 2–3 mm long, erect or spreading, deeply 2-partite, the segments linear-filiform, glabrous, pale green or dull purple.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 4–5 mm long; sepals 5, 2 × 1.5 mm, ovate, lepidote without, glabrous within, pale yellowish-green; petals 5, 2.5 × 0.75 mm, linear-oblanceolate to oblong, ciliate but otherwise glabrous, pale yellowish-cream; disk glands 5, truncate, fleshy, glabrous; stamens 15, filaments 2 mm long, glabrous except at the base, anthers 0.5 mm long with a broad connective, pale yellow; receptacle pilose.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 2–4 mm long, stouter than in the male, densely lepidote; sepals 5, c. 2 × 1 mm, triangular-ovate, otherwise as in the male; petals absent; disk 5-lobed, the lobes truncate, glabrous; ovary 1.5 mm in diameter, subglobose, densely yellowish-lepidote; styles 3, 2–3 mm long, erect or spreading, deeply 2-partite, the segments linear-filiform, glabrous, pale green or dull purple.
    Fruits
    Fruits 6–7 × 6–8 mm, subglobose-trigonous, septicidal, densely lepidote, pale silvery-green or cream-green, sometimes black-speckled.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4–5.5 × 3 × 2.5 mm, oblong-ovoid, smooth, shiny, grey, sometimes mottled blackish; caruncle 2–2.5 mm wide, somewhat convex, pale yellow.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A monoecious much-branched shrub up to 5 m. tall.
    Twigs
    Young twigs densely yellowish or silvery lepidote, the scales sometimes stellate-pubescent on their central bosses, falling after the first season or remaining the following season; older twigs pale greyish brown.
    Leaves
    Petioles 2–5(–9) mm. long, cream-lepidote or yellowish stellate-lepidote; leaf-blade elliptic-ovate, oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2.5–7(–11) cm. long, 1–3(–4.5) cm. wide, obtuse or emarginate, rounded or shallowly cordate, with minute stipitate basal glands usually not visible from above, entire, firmly membranous or subchartaceous, lateral nerves 7–11 pairs, slightly prominent beneath, uniformly thinly stellate-pubescent and yellowish green above, shiny silvery or cream-lepidote beneath, the scales either unadorned or with their central bosses stellate-pubescent.
    Stipules
    Stipules lanceolate, 0.75 mm. long, somewhat obscured by the scales, caducous.
    Buds
    Axillary buds not perulate.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes terminal, up to 5 cm. long, but more often 1–3 cm. long, ♂ for most of their length, but with 1–4 ♀ flowers at the base, axis yellow lepidote or stellate-lepidote; bracts deltate, 0.75 mm. long,lepidote, ciliate.
    Flowers
    Male flowers:pedicels 2–5 mm. long, slender, yellow lepidote or stellate-lepidote; sepals 5, ovate, 2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, subacute, yellow or yellow-brown lepidote or stellate-lepidote without, glabrous within, pale yellow-green; petals 5, linear-oblong or linear-oblanceolate, 2 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, ciliate on the margin, pubescent within, glabrous without; disc minute or 0; stamens 12–15, filaments 2 mm. long, glabrous, anthers 0.5 mm. long; receptacle pilose. Female flowers:pedicels 2–3 mm. long, extending to 4 mm. in fruit, stouter than in the ♂, yellow or yellow-brown lepidote or stellate-lepidote; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes resembling the ♂ sepals; petals 0; disc annular; ovary subglobose, 2 mm. diameter, densely yellow-brown, brown or black lepidote or stellate-lepidote; styles 3–4, spreading or incurved, 2.5 mm. long, lepidote at the base, otherwise glabrous, deeply bipartite, the lobes linear, entire or bifid at the apex.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 2–5 mm. long, slender, yellow lepidote or stellate-lepidote; sepals 5, ovate, 2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, subacute, yellow or yellow-brown lepidote or stellate-lepidote without, glabrous within, pale yellow-green; petals 5, linear-oblong or linear-oblanceolate, 2 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, ciliate on the margin, pubescent within, glabrous without; disc minute or 0; stamens 12–15, filaments 2 mm. long, glabrous, anthers 0.5 mm. long; receptacle pilose.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 2–3 mm. long, extending to 4 mm. in fruit, stouter than in the ♂, yellow or yellow-brown lepidote or stellate-lepidote; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes resembling the ♂ sepals; petals 0; disc annular; ovary subglobose, 2 mm. diameter, densely yellow-brown, brown or black lepidote or stellate-lepidote; styles 3–4, spreading or incurved, 2.5 mm. long, lepidote at the base, otherwise glabrous, deeply bipartite, the lobes linear, entire or bifid at the apex.
    Fruits
    Fruit 3-lobed, 6–7 mm. long, 7–9 mm. diameter, septicidal, yellow lepidote and black spotted owing to the darker coloration of the central bosses of some of the scales.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong-ovoid, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, brown or greyish, shiny, with a ± convex caruncle 2 mm. wide.
    Habitat
    Deciduous bushland and thicket; 0–1300 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K4 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 from Angola (Huila) and Namibia (Ovamboland) northeastwards to S. Ethiopia and Somalia (S.) and southeastwards to South Africa (Natal)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Caprivi Strip, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Croton menyharthii Pax appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 23, 1965 Wild, H. [7233], Botswana K000317946
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000347465
    Long, D.G. [370], Botswana K000317952
    Lugard, E.J. [34], Botswana K000317953 Unknown type material
    Lugard, E.J. [41], Botswana K000317954 Unknown type material
    Menyharth [s.n.], Mozambique K000347464
    Pope, G. [233], Botswana K000317948
    Smith, P.A. [2145], Botswana K000317949
    Smith, P.A. [2559], Botswana K000317951
    Smith, P.A. [2145], Botswana K000317950
    Brown, R.C. [8687], Botswana K000317947

    Bibliography

    First published in Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 733 (1898)

    Accepted by

    • van Ee, B.W. (2011). The contribution of Johann Friedrich Klotzsch in the taxonomy of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) and associated genera Willdenowia 41: 15-33.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 196 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 192 (1961).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 204 (1949).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 47 (1921).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 753 (1912).
    • Pax in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 6: 733 (1898).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0