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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Croton L.
      1. Croton scheffleri Pax

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to Zambia.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A shrub or small tree to 6 m tall, monoecious or sometimes dioecious.
    Twigs
    Twigs dark purplish-grey.
    Indumentum
    Young growth stellate-hirsute.
    Stipules
    Stipules up to 7 mm long, filiform, soon falling.
    Petiole
    Petioles 1–4 cm long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 4–12 × 2–9 cm, broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, somewhat irregularly serrulate on the margin, wide-cuneate to rounded or truncate at the base, with a pair of shortly-stipitate or subsessile discoid basal glands on the lower surface, chartaceous, sparingly stellate-pubescent on upper surface, evenly to densely so beneath; 5–7-nerved from the base, lateral nerves in 3–4 pairs, slightly prominent beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 4–7 cm long, terminal, few-flowered, usually androgynous, sometimes male; bracts resembling the stipules.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 5–6 mm long; sepals 5, 2.5 × 2 mm, ovate, stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, greenish; petals 5, 2.5 × 1.5 mm, obovate-spathulate, ciliate but otherwise glabrous, cream-coloured; disk glands 5, rounded-subtruncate, fleshy, pubescent; stamens 15, filaments 2 mm long, glabrous, anthers 1.25 mm long, orange-yellow; receptacle villous.
    Flowers
    Female flowers: pedicels 2–3 mm long, extending to 1.5–2 cm in fruit; sepals 5, 3 × 2 mm, accrescent to 10 × 5 mm in fruit, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, subacute, becoming foliaceous, with a midrib and 2–3 pairs of lateral nerves, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, subglabrous within, green; petals absent; disk shallowly 5-lobed, the lobes alternating with the sepals, rounded, puberulous; ovary 2 mm in diameter, trilobate-subglobose, densely fulvous stellate-tomentose; styles 3, 3–4 mm long, divaricate, deeply 2-partite, the segments filiform, sparingly stellate-pubescent basally, apically subglabrous. Male flowers: pedicels 5–6 mm long; sepals 5, 2.5 × 2 mm, ovate, stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, greenish; petals 5, 2.5 × 1.5 mm, obovate-spathulate, ciliate but otherwise glabrous, cream-coloured; disk glands 5, rounded-subtruncate, fleshy, pubescent; stamens 15, filaments 2 mm long, glabrous, anthers 1.25 mm long, orange-yellow; receptacle villous.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 2–3 mm long, extending to 1.5–2 cm in fruit; sepals 5, 3 × 2 mm, accrescent to 10 × 5 mm in fruit, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, subacute, becoming foliaceous, with a midrib and 2–3 pairs of lateral nerves, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, subglabrous within, green; petals absent; disk shallowly 5-lobed, the lobes alternating with the sepals, rounded, puberulous; ovary 2 mm in diameter, trilobate-subglobose, densely fulvous stellate-tomentose; styles 3, 3–4 mm long, divaricate, deeply 2-partite, the segments filiform, sparingly stellate-pubescent basally, apically subglabrous.
    Fruits
    Fruits 5 × 7 mm, trilobate-subglobose, septicidal, evenly scurfily and sparingly patent stellate-pubescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4.5 × 3 mm, ovoid-ellipsoid, smooth, shiny, dark brown; caruncle 1 mm wide.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A monoecious virgately-branched shrub or small tree up to 12 m. in height, although most commonly 3–6 m.
    Twigs
    Older twigs dark purplish grey. Young twigs sparingly or evenly stellate-pubescent, often adpressedly so.
    Bark
    Bark brown, longitudinally fissured.
    Leaves
    Leaves aromatic; petiole (1–)2–3.5(–4.5) cm. long, densely stellate-tomentose or evenly or sparsely stellate-pubescent or almost glabrous; leaf-blade broadly ovate or rhomboid-ovate, (3–)4–8(–10) cm. long, (1.5–)2–6(–7) cm. wide, acutely or obtusely acuminate, sometimes caudate, cuneate, rounded or almost truncate, with 2(–4) subsessile or stipitate discoid basal glands usually visible from above, serrulate, thinly chartaceous, 5–7-nerved from the base, remaining lateral nerves 3–5 pairs, not prominent above, prominent beneath, evenly to densely greyish or fulvous stellate-pubescent above and very densely whitish or buff stellate-tomentose beneath at first, later becoming evenly or sparingly pubescent above and beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules filiform, 2–7 mm. long, sparingly stellate-pubescent or glabrous, readily deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes terminal or subterminal, (1–)3–10(–13) cm. long, either all ♂, all ♀, half ♂ (above) and half ♀ (below) or mostly ♂ with 1–2 ♀’s at the base; axis densely, evenly or sparingly stellate-pubescent; bracts filiform to linear, 1.5–3 mm. long, sparingly stellate-pubescent.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 4–9 mm. long, evenly or sparingly stellate-pubescent; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes ± ovate, 2–3 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, acute or subacute, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, puberulous toward the apex, greenish; petals 5, obovate-spathulate, 2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous without and within except at the base, which is villous, ciliate, especially at the apex, cream; disc-glands free, rounded; stamens 16, filaments 2 mm. long, glabrous, anthers 1 mm. long, orange; receptacle villous.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels 2–3 mm. long, stouter than the ♂ pedicels, extending to 1.5–2 cm. in fruit, densely stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, ovate to lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, 3 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, accrescent to 1.1 cm. long and 5 mm. wide in fruit, subacute or obtuse, becoming foliaceous, with a midrib and 2–3 pairs of lateral nerves, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, and within in the upper half, glabrous within in the lower half, green; petals 0; disc shallowly 5-lobed, the lobes alternating with the sepals, rounded, puberulous; ovary globose-subtrilobed, 2.5–3 mm. diameter, densely fulvous stellate-tomentose; styles 3, ascending-incurved or somewhat spreading, stellate-pubescent beneath at the base, otherwise glabrous, deeply bipartite, the lobes filiform, 2.5 mm. long. Male flowers:pedicels 4–9 mm. long, evenly or sparingly stellate-pubescent; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes ± ovate, 2–3 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, acute or subacute, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, puberulous toward the apex, greenish; petals 5, obovate-spathulate, 2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, obtuse, glabrous without and within except at the base, which is villous, ciliate, especially at the apex, cream; disc-glands free, rounded; stamens 16, filaments 2 mm. long, glabrous, anthers 1 mm. long, orange; receptacle villous.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 2–3 mm. long, stouter than the ♂ pedicels, extending to 1.5–2 cm. in fruit, densely stellate-pubescent; sepals 5, ovate to lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, 3 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, accrescent to 1.1 cm. long and 5 mm. wide in fruit, subacute or obtuse, becoming foliaceous, with a midrib and 2–3 pairs of lateral nerves, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, and within in the upper half, glabrous within in the lower half, green; petals 0; disc shallowly 5-lobed, the lobes alternating with the sepals, rounded, puberulous; ovary globose-subtrilobed, 2.5–3 mm. diameter, densely fulvous stellate-tomentose; styles 3, ascending-incurved or somewhat spreading, stellate-pubescent beneath at the base, otherwise glabrous, deeply bipartite, the lobes filiform, 2.5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit trilobed-subglobose, 5 mm. long, 7 mm. wide, septicidal, evenly scurfily stellate-pubescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid-ellipsoid, 5–5.5 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, dark brown, shiny with a small caruncle 1 mm. wide.
    Habitat
    Bushland and thicket, generally in rocky places, on lava, poor soils, riverine; 800–1500(–2300) m.
    Distribution
    K1 K4 T1 T2 T4 T5 T6 T7

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia

    Other Data

    Croton scheffleri Pax appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Scheffler, G. [2], Kenya K000347461 Unknown type material

    Bibliography

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 43: 78 (1909)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 197 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 192 (1961).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 206 (1949).
    • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 51 (1936).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 48 (1921).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 773 (1912).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 43: 78 (1909).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0