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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Croton L.
      1. Croton steenkampianus Gerstner

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania (Uzaramo), S. Mozambique to S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A shrub c. 2 m high, or tree to 7 m, dioecious or monoecious.
    Twigs
    Twigs greyish-brown, lenticellate.
    Indumentum
    Young growth densely fulvous-lepidote.
    Stipules
    Stipules 3–10 mm long, subulate.
    Petiole
    Petioles 0.5–6 cm long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 2–15 × 2–10 cm, ovate, acutely shortly acuminate at the apex, sometimes obtuse or emarginate through deformity, entire or subentire on the margin, rounded to shallowly cordate at the base with a pair of sessile discoid basal glands beneath, chartaceous, sparingly scurfily stellate-pubescent and green on the upper surface, silvery-lepidote beneath; 5–9-nerved from the base, lateral nerves in 5–8 pairs, ± impressed above, prominent beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 2–10 cm long, terminal, mostly female with a short apical male portion, or all female; bracts minute.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 3 mm long; sepals 5, 2 × 1 mm, triangular-ovate, yellowish-lepidote without, glabrous within; petals 5, 2 × 0.5 mm, oblong-oblanceolate, pubescent, ciliate, pale yellowish-cream in colour; disk glands 5, rounded or truncate; stamens 17–20, filaments 2–3 mm long, sparingly pubescent, anthers 1 mm long; receptacle pilose.
    Flowers
    Female flowers: pedicels 3 mm long, stouter than in the male, densely lepidote; sepals 5, 3–4 × 1.5 mm, triangular-lanceolate, subacute, lepidote without, pubescent within, greenish; petals absent; disk shallowly 5-lobed, the lobes rounded; ovary 2 mm in diameter, subglobose, densely fulvous stellate-lepidote; styles 3, 2–3 mm long, erect or spreading, twice bipartite with linear-filiform segments, sparingly stellate-pubescent abaxially, purplish. Male flowers: pedicels 3 mm long; sepals 5, 2 × 1 mm, triangular-ovate, yellowish-lepidote without, glabrous within; petals 5, 2 × 0.5 mm, oblong-oblanceolate, pubescent, ciliate, pale yellowish-cream in colour; disk glands 5, rounded or truncate; stamens 17–20, filaments 2–3 mm long, sparingly pubescent, anthers 1 mm long; receptacle pilose.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 3 mm long, stouter than in the male, densely lepidote; sepals 5, 3–4 × 1.5 mm, triangular-lanceolate, subacute, lepidote without, pubescent within, greenish; petals absent; disk shallowly 5-lobed, the lobes rounded; ovary 2 mm in diameter, subglobose, densely fulvous stellate-lepidote; styles 3, 2–3 mm long, erect or spreading, twice bipartite with linear-filiform segments, sparingly stellate-pubescent abaxially, purplish.
    Fruits
    Fruits 5 × 6–7 mm, trilobate-subglobose, septicidal, evenly stellate-lepidote.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3.5–4 × 2.5–3.5 × 2–2.5 mm, ovoid, smooth, somewhat shiny, dark brown; caruncle c. 1 mm wide, ± flattened.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A dioecious or monoecious shrub up to 4.5 m. tall, though more commonly 1–3 m. tall.
    Twigs
    Young twigs densely scurfily fulvous to ferruginous stellate-lepidote, the scales deeply laciniate and having their central bosses often provided with 1–more bristles. Older twigs greyish brown.
    Leaves
    Leaves often subopposite; petioles (1–)2–4(–5) cm. long, scurfily fulvous stellate-lepidote; leaf-blade broadly ovate to elliptic-ovate, (4–)6–13 cm. long, 3–8 cm. wide, acutely acuminate, rarely subacute, cordate, rounded or subcuneate, with 2–4 sessile or subsessile orange-brown unequal or subequal discoid basal glands either above or beneath the blade, subentire, with the margin minutely glandular-toothed, firmly membranous to subchartaceous, 5–9-nerved from the base, remaining lateral nerves 8–11 pairs, midrib and nerves prominent beneath, uniformly thinly stellate-pubescent and green above, densely greenish-silvery lepidote beneath, the scales laciniate.
    Stipules
    Stipules filiform-subulate, 4 mm. long, sparingly scurfily stellate-lepidote.
    Buds
    Axillary buds not perulate.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes terminal, 5–10 cm. long, the lower one-third to three quarters ♀, the upper quarter to two-thirds ♂, axis scurfily fulvous stellate-lepidote; bracts resembling the stipules.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 3–5 mm. long, slender, scurfily stellate-lepidote; sepals 5, triangular-ovate, 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, subacute, yellowish-silvery lepidote without, the scales deeply laciniate, glabrous within; petals 5, elliptic-oblong or oblong-oblanceolate, 2.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, pubescent within, glabrous without, ciliate on the margin; disc-glands free, rounded or ± truncate; stamens 17, filaments 3 mm. long, sparingly pubescent, anthers 1 mm. long; receptacle pilose.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels 3–5 mm. long, often extending to 7 mm. in fruit, otherwise resembling those of the ♂ flowers; sepals 5, triangular-lanceolate, subequal, 3.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, slightly accrescent in fruit, subacute, yellowish-silvery lepidote without, pubescent within, ciliate on margin; petals 0; disc shallowly crenate; ovary subglobose, 2 mm. diameter, densely fulvous adpressed stellate-pubescent; styles 3, spreading, 4 mm. long, thinly adpressed stellate-pubescent beneath, glabrous above, twice bipartite, the ultimate lobes linear-filiform. Male flowers:pedicels 3–5 mm. long, slender, scurfily stellate-lepidote; sepals 5, triangular-ovate, 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, subacute, yellowish-silvery lepidote without, the scales deeply laciniate, glabrous within; petals 5, elliptic-oblong or oblong-oblanceolate, 2.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, pubescent within, glabrous without, ciliate on the margin; disc-glands free, rounded or ± truncate; stamens 17, filaments 3 mm. long, sparingly pubescent, anthers 1 mm. long; receptacle pilose.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 3–5 mm. long, often extending to 7 mm. in fruit, otherwise resembling those of the ♂ flowers; sepals 5, triangular-lanceolate, subequal, 3.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, slightly accrescent in fruit, subacute, yellowish-silvery lepidote without, pubescent within, ciliate on margin; petals 0; disc shallowly crenate; ovary subglobose, 2 mm. diameter, densely fulvous adpressed stellate-pubescent; styles 3, spreading, 4 mm. long, thinly adpressed stellate-pubescent beneath, glabrous above, twice bipartite, the ultimate lobes linear-filiform.
    Fruits
    Fruit 3-lobed, 6 mm. long, 7 mm. diameter, septicidal, evenly adpressed stellate-pubescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds broadly ovoid, 4.5 mm. long, 3.5 mm. wide, dark brown to blackish, slightly shiny, with a scarcely prominent caruncle 1.5 mm. wide.
    Habitat
    In closed thicket; 150 m.
    Distribution
    T6

    Distribution

    Native to:

    KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Tanzania

    Other Data

    Croton steenkampianus Gerstner appears in other Kew resources:

    Bibliography

    First published in J. S. African Bot. 12: 38 (1946)

    Accepted by

    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Gerstner in Journ. S. Afr. Bot. 12: 38 (1946) as steenkampiana.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0