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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Croton L.
      1. Croton sylvaticus Hochst.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A shrub or tree up to 40 m tall, sometimes deciduous, monoecious; crown spreading.
    Bole
    Bole up to 12 m high, and 75 cm d.b.h.
    Bark
    Bark smooth or slightly roughened, soft, fibrous, light grey or greyish-brown.
    Twigs
    Twigs sparingly to densely stellate-pubescent at first, later glabrescent and becoming dark grey-brown.
    Stipules
    Stipules 0.5–1 cm long, linear, soon falling.
    Petiole
    Petioles 1.5–7 cm long, bipulvinate.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 3–21 × 2–14 cm, ovate, elliptic-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, glandular crenate-serrate on the margins, sometimes shallowly and/or irregularly so and sometimes with small stipitate or sessile discoid glands in the sinuses also, usually cuneate or rounded and with a pair of subsessile or stipitate discoid glands at or near the base, chartaceous, stellate-pubescent on both surfaces when young, later glabrescent, dark green, smelling of walnuts when crushed; 3–5-nerved from the base, lateral nerves in 4–6(8) pairs, sometimes slightly impressed above when dried, prominent beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 6–21 cm long, terminal, male, female or androgynous; axes sparingly to densely stellate-pubescent; bracts smaller than but otherwise resembling the stipules.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 2–6 mm long; sepals 5, 2–3 × 1.5 mm, elliptic-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, puberulous at apex, pale yellowish-green; petals 5, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm, elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, glabrous without, puberulous within, ciliate, greenish-cream in colour; disk glands free, triangular, acutely acuminate; stamens 14–17, filaments 4 mm long, glabrous, anthers c. 1 mm long; receptacle densely villous.
    Flowers
    Female flowers: pedicels 1–2 mm long, not or slightly extending in fruit, stout, densely stellate-tomentose; sepals 5(7), 3 × 0.5–1 mm, linear-lanceolate, indumented as the male sepals, whitish; petals 0–5, shorter than the sepals, otherwise resembling the male petals; disk 5-lobed, glabrous; ovary 2 mm in diameter, ovoid-subglobose, densely stellate-tomentose; styles 3, 4–5 mm long, deeply 2-partite with the segments filiform. Male flowers: pedicels 2–6 mm long; sepals 5, 2–3 × 1.5 mm, elliptic-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sparingly stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within, puberulous at apex, pale yellowish-green; petals 5, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm, elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, glabrous without, puberulous within, ciliate, greenish-cream in colour; disk glands free, triangular, acutely acuminate; stamens 14–17, filaments 4 mm long, glabrous, anthers c. 1 mm long; receptacle densely villous.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 1–2 mm long, not or slightly extending in fruit, stout, densely stellate-tomentose; sepals 5(7), 3 × 0.5–1 mm, linear-lanceolate, indumented as the male sepals, whitish; petals 0–5, shorter than the sepals, otherwise resembling the male petals; disk 5-lobed, glabrous; ovary 2 mm in diameter, ovoid-subglobose, densely stellate-tomentose; styles 3, 4–5 mm long, deeply 2-partite with the segments filiform.
    Fruits
    Fruits 9–11 × 7–10 mm when dry, larger when fresh, trilobate-subglobose to ellipsoid, subindehiscent, sparingly to evenly stellate-pubescent, bright pinkish-orange or yellow.
    Seeds
    Seeds 6 × 4–5 mm, compressed-ovoid, whitish, aril white.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Croton sylvaticus Hochst. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 1956 Gerrard, W.T. [148], South Africa K000422610
    Nov 1, 1956 Krauss [142], South Africa K000422609 holotype
    Nov 1, 1956 Krauss [142], South Africa K000422611 Unknown type material
    Nov 1, 1956 Kuntze, O. [s.n.], South Africa K000422608 isotype
    Styles, B.T. [94], Uganda 25694.006
    Welwitsch [346], Angola K000347472
    Patel, H. [7189], Mozambique K000545151
    Patel, H. [7216], Mozambique K000545177

    Bibliography

    First published in Flora 28: 82 (1845)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Bamps, P. (2009). Croton gratissimus (Euphorbiaceae), nouveau pour la flore du Congo-Kinshasa Systematics and Geography of Plants 79: 248-250.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0