1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Euphorbia L.
      1. Euphorbia ingens E.Mey. ex Boiss.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

    Habit
    Massive succulent tree to 4–12(15) m high; trunk stout simple; bark rough fissured grey.
    Branches
    Branches persistent from c. 3 m upwards, suberect, rebranching to form eventually a large broadly rounded crown; terminal branchlets fleshy, 4-angled, 6–12 cm wide, square in cross-section to distinctly but stoutly winged with wings to 3 cm wide, usually constricted at irregular intervals into oblong segments to 10–15 cm long or more; margins of the angles straight to sinuate bearing shallow tubercles 1–2 cm apart.
    Spines
    Spine shields to 6 × 5 mm, very obtusely triangular, extending 5 mm above to include the flowering eye; spines stout, to c. 5 mm long; prickles flexible, triangular, 1.5 mm long, soon deciduous; spines and spine shields soon becoming corky, rusty-brown and disintegrating.
    Leaves
    Leaves to 8 × 2 cm and oblanceolate on seedlings and young growth, 3 × 3 mm and deltoid on older growth, and soon deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes crowded towards the apex of the branches, 1–3 at each flowering eye, 1-forked with stout peduncles to 8–20 mm long and cyme branches 5 mm long arranged vertically; bracts to 5 × 6 mm, rounded.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia 5 × 10 mm, with broadly cup-shaped involucres; glands transversely elliptic, 2 × 4 mm, touching, golden-yellow; lobes transversely elliptic, 2.2 × 3 mm.
    Male
    Male flowers many: bracteoles spathulate, plumose; stamens c. 5.5 mm long.
    Flowers
    Female flower: perianth irregularly divided into 3 or more filiform lobes 2–4 mm long, sometimes with 1 or 2 teeth; styles 3 (rarely 2), 3–3.5 mm long, joined for 1.5 mm, apices thickened, rugulose, bifid. Male flowers many: bracteoles spathulate, plumose; stamens c. 5.5 mm long.
    Female
    Female flower: perianth irregularly divided into 3 or more filiform lobes 2–4 mm long, sometimes with 1 or 2 teeth; styles 3 (rarely 2), 3–3.5 mm long, joined for 1.5 mm, apices thickened, rugulose, bifid.
    Fruits
    Capsule shortly exserted on a stout pedicel 5 mm long, (2)3-locular, subglobose, 7 × 10 mm, fleshy, green becoming red, hardening immediately before dehiscence to 6 × 9 mm, and very obtusely (2)3-lobed.
    Seeds
    Seeds subglobose, slightly compressed laterally, to 4 × 3 mm, greyish-brown speckled with paler brown, smooth.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Caprivi Strip, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Euphorbia ingens E.Mey. ex Boiss. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2012 s.coll. [5] K001044589 holotype
    Jan 1, 2012 s.coll. [5] K001044590 holotype
    Mitchell, B.L., Zambia 22788.000
    Leach, L.C. [10802], Zimbabwe K000317958
    Brummitt, R.K. [11218], Malawi K000317959
    Chapman, J.D. [5846], Malawi 29047.364
    Marloth, R. [5111], South Africa K000253384
    Drege [4614], South Africa K000253383 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.], South Africa K000253385
    s.coll. [s.n.], South Africa K000253386
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000253388
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000253387

    First published in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 87 (1862)

    Accepted by

    • Bruyns, P.V. (2012). Nomenclature and typification of southern African species of Euphorbia Bothalia 42: 217-245.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0