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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Euphorbia L.
      1. Euphorbia peplus L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Somalia, Europe to W. Himalaya.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

    Habit
    Annual herb to 25(35) cm high, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves with a petiole to 1 cm long, shorter above; lamina to 25 × 15 mm, obovate, rounded at the apex, cuneate at the base, entire at the margin.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes axillary and in terminal 3-branched umbels forking many times, with primary rays to 3.5 cm long.
    Bracts
    Bracts sessile, similar to the leaves but more ovate.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia on peduncles to 1.3 mm long, 1 × 1 mm with cup-shaped involucres; glands 4, 0.5 mm wide, transversely oblong with 2 horns to 0.8 mm long; lobes rounded, minute, margins ciliate.
    Flowers
    Male flowers: bracteoles linear, with minutely ciliate tips; stamens 1 mm long. Female flower: ovary glabrous; styles 0.3 mm long, joined at the base, spreading with deeply bifid apices.
    Male
    Male flowers: bracteoles linear, with minutely ciliate tips; stamens 1 mm long.
    Female
    Female flower: ovary glabrous; styles 0.3 mm long, joined at the base, spreading with deeply bifid apices.
    Fruits
    Capsule exserted on a pedicel to 3 mm long, 2 × 2 mm, deeply 3-lobed with truncate base and with longitudinal fleshy ridges each side of the sutures.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.5 × 1 mm, oblong-ovoid with longitudinal rows of deep pits, reddish-brown becoming grey; caruncle 0.3 mm across, smooth, white.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 1700 - 3100 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Glabrous annual herb to 25 cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaves obovate, to 25 × 15 mm., base cuneate, apex rounded, margin entire; petiole of lower leaves to 1 cm. long, shorter above.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes axillary and in terminal 3-branched umbels forking many times, with primary rays to 3.5 cm. long; bracts sessile, similar to the leaves but more ovate.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia on peduncles to 1.3 mm. long, 1 × 1 mm., with cup-shaped involucres; glands 4, transversely oblong, 0.5 mm. broad, with 2 horns to 0.8 mm. long; lobes rounded, minute, margins ciliate.
    Male
    Male flowers:bracteoles linear, tips minutely ciliate; stamens 1 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Female flower:styles 0.3 mm. long, joined at the base, spreading, bifid for 2/3. Male flowers:bracteoles linear, tips minutely ciliate; stamens 1 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flower:styles 0.3 mm. long, joined at the base, spreading, bifid for 2/3.
    Fruits
    Capsule exserted on a pedicel to 3 mm. long, deeply 3-lobed, with truncate base, 2 × 2 mm., with longitudinal fleshy ridges each side of the sutures.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong-ovoid, 1.5 × 1 mm., reddish brown becoming grey, with longitudinal rows of deep pits and a smooth white caruncle 0.3 mm. across.
    Habitat
    Weed of cultivation and disturbed ground, in shade; 1700–2100 m.
    Distribution
    T4 T7 originating from Europe and E. Asia, a weed of world-wide temperate and subtropical zones including South Africa, and fairly recently introduced into Zimbabwe and Sudan

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corse, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Netherlands, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, West Himalaya, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Ascension, Assam, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Denmark, Easter Is., Ecuador, Free State, Føroyar, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Japan, Juan Fernández Is., Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, St.Helena, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Euphorbia peplus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 10, 2011 Day, C.D. [27], Turkey K000341668
    Mueller [387], Brazil K001210952
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001210953
    Lobin, W. [1572], Cape Verde K001105494
    Hoehne, W. [13827], Brazil K001210955
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 30], Great Britain K000914264
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [6673], Brazil K001210954

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 456 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • da Silva, O.L.M., Cordeiro, I. & Caruzo, M.B.R. (2014). Synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Phytotaxa 181: 193-215.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
    • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
    • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 454 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 72 (1952).
    • N.E. Br. in Fl. Cap. 5(2): 255 (1915).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 456 (1753).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/