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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Macaranga Thouars
      1. Macaranga capensis (Baill.) Sim

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Gabon to Kenya and S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A small to medium tree 3.5–20 m., or large tree up to 30 m., often with a spreading somewhat flattened crown.
    Stem
    Stems and branches spiny when young.
    Bole
    Bole white, unbranched for up to 12 m.
    Bark
    Bark smooth, grey or brownish on the branches.
    Wood
    Wood white, hard.
    Shoots
    Young shoots and inflorescence-axes densely ferruginous tomentellous at first, later glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Petioles (2–)10–20(–30) cm. long, pulvinate at the base, ferruginous tomentose at first, and also sometimes whitish hispid, the tomentum later disappearing, the whitish hairs persisting; leaf-blades broadly ovate to triangular-ovate, (6–)10–30(–40) cm. long, (4–)10–20(–30) cm. wide, shortly acutely acuminate, (caudate in juvenile leaves), entire or (juvenile leaves) glandular-denticulate, shallowly to deeply cordate, or, if peltate, then truncate or rounded, with or without a small cluster of glands near the petiole insertion, membranous in juvenile foliage, chartaceous or occasionally thinly coriaceous in mature foliage, (5–)7–11-nerved from the base, lateral nerves (6–)9–13 pairs, not or scarcely prominent above, prominent be-neath, brochidodromous, tertiary nerves parallel, circular and concentric at the base in the peltate leaves, quaternary nerves generally indistinct, densely minutely uniformly glandular-punctate beneath, the glands drying blackish, ferruginous to fulvous tomentellous above and beneath and whitish hirsute along the midrib and main nerves beneath at first, later more or less glabrescent above and beneath except for the whitish hairs along the midrib and main nerves beneath, not glaucous beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules lanceolate, 1–2 cm. long, 4–8 mm. wide, acutely acuminate, entire, ferruginous tomentellous, caducous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, solitary. Female inflorescences paniculate or subpaniculate, (2.5–)5–12 cm. long, axes straight; bracts ± as in the ♂ inflorescences, but only 3–5-flowered. Male inflorescences paniculate, 8–10(–14) cm. long; axes slightly zigzag toward the apex; bracts triangular-ovate, 4–5(–8) mm. long, those of the main axis larger and more stipule-like than those of the lateral axes, the distal bracts somewhat thickened, strongly reflexed, sinuate-lobate, with a gland on each side and at the apex adaxially, 20–30-flowered.
    Male
    Male inflorescences paniculate, 8–10(–14) cm. long; axes slightly zigzag toward the apex; bracts triangular-ovate, 4–5(–8) mm. long, those of the main axis larger and more stipule-like than those of the lateral axes, the distal bracts somewhat thickened, strongly reflexed, sinuate-lobate, with a gland on each side and at the apex adaxially, 20–30-flowered. Male flowers subsessile; calyx-lobes 2–3, ovate, 0.75 mm. long, sparingly pubescent without, glabrous within, greenish cream; stamens 2–3(–4), filaments ± free, 1 mm. long, anthers obscurely 4-thecous, 0.3 mm. across, yellow.
    Female
    Female inflorescences paniculate or subpaniculate, (2.5–)5–12 cm. long, axes straight; bracts ± as in the ♂ inflorescences, but only 3–5-flowered. Female flowers shortly pedicellate, the pedicels 1–2 mm. long; calyx urceolate, splitting into 2–3(–4) lobes and becoming cupular then flattened as the fruit matures, fulvous tomentellous without, glabrous within, yellow-green or green; ovary unlobed, rarely bilobate, 1–1.5 mm. long, 0.75–1 mm. wide, densely yellowish granulate-glandular; styles 1(–2), recurved, ± free when 2, 2–3 mm. long, adaxially densely fimbriate-papillose and abaxially pubescent.
    Flowers
    Female flowers shortly pedicellate, the pedicels 1–2 mm. long; calyx urceolate, splitting into 2–3(–4) lobes and becoming cupular then flattened as the fruit matures, fulvous tomentellous without, glabrous within, yellow-green or green; ovary unlobed, rarely bilobate, 1–1.5 mm. long, 0.75–1 mm. wide, densely yellowish granulate-glandular; styles 1(–2), recurved, ± free when 2, 2–3 mm. long, adaxially densely fimbriate-papillose and abaxially pubescent. Male flowers subsessile; calyx-lobes 2–3, ovate, 0.75 mm. long, sparingly pubescent without, glabrous within, greenish cream; stamens 2–3(–4), filaments ± free, 1 mm. long, anthers obscurely 4-thecous, 0.3 mm. across, yellow.
    Fruits
    Fruit subglobose, rarely bilobate, 3–5 mm. long, 4–6 mm. diameter, densely yellowish-green granulate-glandular, later becoming smooth and glabrous when the glands rub off.
    Seeds
    Seeds subglobose, 2.5–3 mm. diameter, ± smooth, shiny, dark purplish-brown to blackish.
    Habitat
    Evergreen forest; (10–)75–3050 m.
    Distribution
    from S. Ethiopia south to South Africa (Transkei) K4 K5 K7 P T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U2 U3 Z
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A tree up to 25 m high; crown rounded, spreading; stem ± buttressed.
    Trunk
    Trunk and branches with short spines.
    Bark
    Bark light grey with white horizontal markings, smooth.
    Indumentum
    Young growth densely ferruginous-tomentellous at first, later glabrescent.
    Stipules
    Stipules 1–2 cm × 4–8 mm, lanceolate, acutely acuminate, deciduous.
    Petiole
    Petioles up to 30 cm long, pulvinate at the base.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades up to 25 × 20 cm, broadly ovate to triangular-ovate, shortly acuminate at the apex, shallowly to deeply cordate or cordulate at the base, or if peltate then truncate or rounded at the base, entire or glandular-denticulate on the margins, firmly chartaceous, glabrescent on upper surface, hirsute beneath at least along the midrib and main nerves, densely gland-dotted beneath; 5–11-nerved from the base, lateral nerves in 6–14 pairs, looped, tertiary nerves parallel.
    Male
    Male flowers subsessile; calyx lobes 2–3, 0.75 mm long, ovate, yellowish-green; stamens 2–4, filaments ± free, 1 mm long, anthers minute, creamy-white. Male inflorescences 8–12 cm long, paniculate; bracts 4–10 mm long, triangular ovate, adaxially glandular, strongly reflexed, many-flowered.
    Inflorescences
    Female inflorescences 4–8 cm long, paniculate or subpaniculate; bracts 1–5-flowered. Male inflorescences 8–12 cm long, paniculate; bracts 4–10 mm long, triangular ovate, adaxially glandular, strongly reflexed, many-flowered.
    Flowers
    Female flowers shortly pedicellate, the pedicels c. 1–2 mm long; calyx urceolate, splitting into 2–4 lobes and becoming flattened as the fruit matures; ovary 1–1.5 × 0.75–1 mm, unlobed or rarely 2-lobed, densely yellowish-granulate-glandular; styles 1 or 2 and ± free, 2–3 mm long, recurved, fimbriate-papillose. Male flowers subsessile; calyx lobes 2–3, 0.75 mm long, ovate, yellowish-green; stamens 2–4, filaments ± free, 1 mm long, anthers minute, creamy-white.
    Female
    Female flowers shortly pedicellate, the pedicels c. 1–2 mm long; calyx urceolate, splitting into 2–4 lobes and becoming flattened as the fruit matures; ovary 1–1.5 × 0.75–1 mm, unlobed or rarely 2-lobed, densely yellowish-granulate-glandular; styles 1 or 2 and ± free, 2–3 mm long, recurved, fimbriate-papillose. Female inflorescences 4–8 cm long, paniculate or subpaniculate; bracts 1–5-flowered.
    Fruits
    Fruit 3–6 × 4–7(11) mm, subglobose, rarely 2-lobed, densely yellowish-green granulate-glandular at first, later becoming smooth, glabrous and green.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.5–4 mm in diameter, subglobose, ± smooth, dull, red or black.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cape Provinces, Gabon, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Macaranga capensis (Baill.) Sim appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1954 Braun [844], Tanzania K000425823
    unknown [3739], Tanzania K000425825
    Dowsett-Lemaire, F. [2502], Mozambique K000614121
    Warnecke [366], Tanzania K000425824
    Drege [4612], South Africa K000425856 Unknown type material
    Drege [4612], South Africa K000425857 Unknown type material
    Gueinzius, W. [s.n.], South Africa K000425858
    Gueinzius, W. [s.n.], South Africa K000425859
    Mphamba, S. [35], Mozambique K000613732

    Bibliography

    First published in Forest Fl. Cape: 314 (1907)

    Accepted by

    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 200 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 206 (1961).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 93 (1921).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(7): 346 (1914).
    • Sim, For. Fl. Cape Col.: 314, t. 139 (1907).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0