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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Macaranga Thouars
      1. Macaranga kilimandscharica Pax

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Very similar to M. capensis, but with leaf blades rhombic-ovate to triangular-ovate, more gradually acuminate at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, not more than 15 × 10 cm, and generally somewhat glaucous beneath; and with inflorescence axes more obviously zigzag towards the apex, and the distal bracts of the male flowers ± entire.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A small to medium tree 4.5–18 m., or large tree up to 27 m., often with a pyramidal crown, much branched, the branches ascending, or with a broad, spreading crown.
    Bark
    Bark green at first, later becoming greyish white, light or dark grey, pale reddish brown or dark greyish brown, thin, smooth or longitudinally striated or fluted, with prominent lenticels.
    Wood
    Wood soft, heavy.
    Shoots
    Young shoots and inflorescence-axes densely ferruginous tomentellous at first, later glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Petioles (1–)5–10(–14) cm. long, pulvinate at the base, indumentum ± as in M. capensis; leaf-blades triangular-ovate to rhombic-lanceolate, (3–)5–15(–17) cm. long, (1.5–)3–10 cm. wide, acutely acuminate, entire, cuneate, rounded, truncate, occasionally cordulate, peltate or not, usually biglandular at the petiole-insertion, firmly chartaceous to thinly coriaceous, 3–7(–9)-nerved from the base, lateral nerves (5–)7–12 pairs, not prominent above, prominent beneath, brochidodromous, tertiary nerves parallel or subparallel, not or scarcely concentric at the base, densely minutely uniformly glandular-punctate beneath, the glands drying blackish, ferruginous tomentellous above and beneath and occasionally whitish hirsute towards the bases of the midrib and main nerves beneath at first (rarely over the entire surface), later usually ± glabrescent, dark or very dark green with pallid nerves above, usually somewhat glaucous with yellowish brown nerves beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 8–15 mm. long, 2–3 mm. wide, acutely acuminate, entire, densely ferruginous tomentellous, caducous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, solitary. Female inflorescences racemose to subpaniculate, 2–6(–7.5) cm. long; axis straight; bracts ± as in the male inflorescences, but only 1–3-flowered. Male inflorescences paniculate, (3–)5–10 cm. long, axes zigzag towards the apex; bracts ovate-lanceolate to triangular-ovate, (2–)3–4(–5) mm. long, rarely longer, the proximal ones a little larger than the distal, the distal ones thickened, reflexed, entire, biglandular at the base, uniglandular at the apex, rarely multiglandular, 20–30-flowered.
    Male
    Male inflorescences paniculate, (3–)5–10 cm. long, axes zigzag towards the apex; bracts ovate-lanceolate to triangular-ovate, (2–)3–4(–5) mm. long, rarely longer, the proximal ones a little larger than the distal, the distal ones thickened, reflexed, entire, biglandular at the base, uniglandular at the apex, rarely multiglandular, 20–30-flowered. Male flowers subsessile; calyx-lobes 3, elliptic-ovate, 1 mm. long, puberulous without, glabrous within, yellowish green or cream; stamens 2, filaments united at the base, 1 mm. long, whitish, anthers obscurely 4-thecous, 0.5 mm. across, yellow.
    Female
    Female inflorescences racemose to subpaniculate, 2–6(–7.5) cm. long; axis straight; bracts ± as in the male inflorescences, but only 1–3-flowered. Female flowers with pedicels 1–2 mm. long; calyx cupular, splitting into 2–3 lobes and becoming flattened as the fruit matures, fulvous tomentellous or puberulous without, glabrous within, greenish; ovary 1–2-lobate, 1–1.5 mm. long, 1–2 mm. wide, densely yellowish granulate-glandular; styles 1–2, recurved, united at the base when 2, 1–2 mm. long, adaxially densely papillose, abaxially puberulous, tinged with red or purple.
    Flowers
    Female flowers with pedicels 1–2 mm. long; calyx cupular, splitting into 2–3 lobes and becoming flattened as the fruit matures, fulvous tomentellous or puberulous without, glabrous within, greenish; ovary 1–2-lobate, 1–1.5 mm. long, 1–2 mm. wide, densely yellowish granulate-glandular; styles 1–2, recurved, united at the base when 2, 1–2 mm. long, adaxially densely papillose, abaxially puberulous, tinged with red or purple. Male flowers subsessile; calyx-lobes 3, elliptic-ovate, 1 mm. long, puberulous without, glabrous within, yellowish green or cream; stamens 2, filaments united at the base, 1 mm. long, whitish, anthers obscurely 4-thecous, 0.5 mm. across, yellow.
    Fruits
    Fruit transversely ovoid, subglobose or bilobate, 4–6 mm. long, 5–11 mm. diameter, densely granulate-glandular, dull green; styles laterally displaced in the monococcous fruits.
    Seeds
    Seeds subglobose, (3.5–)4–4.5 mm. diameter, shallowly malleate-rugulose or ± smooth, dull or shiny, dark brown to blackish.
    Habitat
    Evergreen forest, locally common to dominant in wetter types, regenerating profusely in clear-felled areas, in secondary forest, on forest edges, in riverine forest and disturbed places; 1310–3000 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K4 K5 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 U1 U2 U3

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Macaranga kilimandscharica Pax appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Volkens, G. [1271], Tanzania K000425821 lectotype
    Volkens, G. [1271a], Tanzania K000425822

    Bibliography

    First published in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 238 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Not accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Macaranga capensis var. kilimandscharica.]
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226. [Cited as Macaranga capensis var. kilimandscharica.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 208 (1961).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 85 (1952).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 132 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 217 (1949).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 461 (1948).
    • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 55 (1936).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 93 (1921).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(7): 344 (1914).
    • Prain in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 938 (1912).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 23: 526 (1897).
    • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 238 (1895)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0