Skip to main content
  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Macaranga Thouars
      1. Macaranga schweinfurthii Pax

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A rapidly growing tree up to 18 m high.
    Stem
    Stem with straight spines up to 6 cm long.
    Bark
    Bark grey-green, smooth, flaking in minute papery scales.
    Indumentum
    Young growth fulvous- to ferruginous-pubescent at first, later glabrescent.
    Stipules
    Stipules 2–3 × 1–2 cm, ovate, foliaceous, subacute or obtuse, deciduous.
    Petiole
    Petioles up to 22 cm long, bipulvinate.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades up to 40 × 30 cm, usually 3-lobed, rarely 5-lobed, sometimes not lobed, deeply cordate and auriculate at the base, repand-dentate on the margins, thinly coriaceous, sparingly puberulous to subglabrous on both surfaces, evenly gland-dotted beneath; lobes forwardly directed, triangular, often emarginate with the mid vein shortly produced; 7–9-nerved from the base, lateral nerves in 5–8 pairs in the median lobe, craspedodromous, tertiary nerves subparallel.
    Male
    Male flowers subsessile, strongly sweetly scented; calyx lobes 3–4, 1 mm long, elliptic-ovate, greenish-yellow; stamens (2)4(5), filaments 1 mm long, ± free, anthers 0.5 mm across. Male inflorescences 8–23 cm long, paniculate; bracts 2–4 × 3–4 mm, broadly ovate-suborbicular, subacute or acute, subentire, erose, densely puberulous, many-flowered.
    Inflorescences
    Female inflorescences 10 cm long, paniculate, little branched; bracts 1-flowered. Male inflorescences 8–23 cm long, paniculate; bracts 2–4 × 3–4 mm, broadly ovate-suborbicular, subacute or acute, subentire, erose, densely puberulous, many-flowered.
    Flowers
    Female flowers shortly pedicellate to subsessile; calyx c. 2.5 mm across, subtruncate to shallowly 4-lobed; ovary 2 × 2.5 mm, 2–3-lobed, tomentellous; styles 2–3, 4 mm long, slightly connate at the base, cylindric, spreading, papillose. Male flowers subsessile, strongly sweetly scented; calyx lobes 3–4, 1 mm long, elliptic-ovate, greenish-yellow; stamens (2)4(5), filaments 1 mm long, ± free, anthers 0.5 mm across.
    Female
    Female flowers shortly pedicellate to subsessile; calyx c. 2.5 mm across, subtruncate to shallowly 4-lobed; ovary 2 × 2.5 mm, 2–3-lobed, tomentellous; styles 2–3, 4 mm long, slightly connate at the base, cylindric, spreading, papillose. Female inflorescences 10 cm long, paniculate, little branched; bracts 1-flowered.
    Fruits
    Fruit 8–9 × 9–10(17) mm, 2-lobed or 1-chambered, shallowly verruculose-rugulose, puberulous, later glabrescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds 7–8 × 4.5 mm, ellipsoid, smooth, endotesta dark grey-brown, exotesta chestnut-brown.
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A straggling tree or shrub
    Ecology
    In forest
    Fruits
    Fruits with a yellow granular covering.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A small spreading tree or tall tree up to 40 m. with a long straight clear bole up to 12 m., and a flat crown.
    Stem
    Trunk and branches with spiny outgrowths.
    Bark
    Bark smooth and white at first, later rough and grey.
    Wood
    Wood soft, white or pink.
    Twigs
    Twigs glabrous.
    Leaves
    Petioles 12–40 cm. long, pulvinate at the base and apex, sparingly puberulous at first, soon glabrescent; leaf-blades usually trilobate, and usually with narrow sinuses between the lobes, rarely either subquinquelobate or conversely even almost elobate, (20–)25–50 cm. long and wide, the median lobe up to 30 cm. wide at the sinuses, emarginate with a median arista, the laterals somewhat smaller and forwardly directed, the lobes triangular-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or subacute, repand-dentate, the blades moderately to deeply cordate, slightly glandular-auriculate at the base of the sinus, firmly chartaceous to thinly coriaceous, 9-nerved from the base, lateral nerves 8–10 pairs in the median lobe, slightly prominent above, prominent beneath, craspedodromous, tertiary nerves subparallel, circular and concentric towards the base, quaternary and quinary networks ± visible above, clearly seen beneath, eglandular above, evenly minutely gland-dotted beneath, densely fulvous tomentose when young, then subglabrous and soon glabrescent above, and minutely puberulous along the nerves beneath, dark green above, paler beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules foliaceous, triangular-ovate and slightly saccate, 3–5 cm. long, 2–3 cm. wide, acute, subentire, membranaceous, pubescent near the apex, otherwise glabrous, leaving down-curved scars.
    Inflorescences
    Panicles fasciculate or solitary in the axils of fallen leaves. Female panicles (5–)15–20 cm. long, little-branched; axis subglabrous; bracts broadly triangular-ovate, 1 mm. long, 1.5–2 mm. wide, acuminate, densely papillose-puberulous without, sparingly adpressed-pubescent within, 1-flowered. Male panicles 6–22 cm. long; axis evenly to sparingly puberulous; bracts broadly ovate to suborbicular, concave, 2–4 mm. long, 3–4 mm. wide, the lower ± erose, the upper subacute to acute, subentire, rarely trilobate, densely papillose-puberulous without and within, 10–20-flowered.
    Male
    Male panicles 6–22 cm. long; axis evenly to sparingly puberulous; bracts broadly ovate to suborbicular, concave, 2–4 mm. long, 3–4 mm. wide, the lower ± erose, the upper subacute to acute, subentire, rarely trilobate, densely papillose-puberulous without and within, 10–20-flowered. Male flowers subsessile, strongly and sweetly scented; calyx-lobes 3(–4), elliptic ovate, 1 mm. long, puberulous without towards the apex, otherwise glabrous, greenish yellow; stamens (2–)4(–5), filaments ± free, 1 mm. long, anthers (3–)4-thecous, 0.5 mm. across.
    Female
    Female panicles (5–)15–20 cm. long, little-branched; axis subglabrous; bracts broadly triangular-ovate, 1 mm. long, 1.5–2 mm. wide, acuminate, densely papillose-puberulous without, sparingly adpressed-pubescent within, 1-flowered. Female flowers very shortly pedicellate to subsessile; calyx subtruncate to shallowly quadrilobate, the lobes rotundate, becoming flattened as the fruit matures, ± 2.5 mm. across, evenly puberulous without, ± glabrous within; ovary 2(–3)-lobed, 2 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, tomentellous; styles 2(–3), slightly connate at the base, free portions spreading, cylindric, 4 mm. long, minutely papillose adaxially.
    Flowers
    Female flowers very shortly pedicellate to subsessile; calyx subtruncate to shallowly quadrilobate, the lobes rotundate, becoming flattened as the fruit matures, ± 2.5 mm. across, evenly puberulous without, ± glabrous within; ovary 2(–3)-lobed, 2 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, tomentellous; styles 2(–3), slightly connate at the base, free portions spreading, cylindric, 4 mm. long, minutely papillose adaxially. Male flowers subsessile, strongly and sweetly scented; calyx-lobes 3(–4), elliptic ovate, 1 mm. long, puberulous without towards the apex, otherwise glabrous, greenish yellow; stamens (2–)4(–5), filaments ± free, 1 mm. long, anthers (3–)4-thecous, 0.5 mm. across.
    Fruits
    Fruit bilobate, up to 1.7 cm. wide, or with only 1 chamber developing a mature seed and then somewhat excentric, dehiscent, 8–9 mm. long, 9–10 mm. wide, irregularly and shallowly verruculose-rugulose, sparingly puberulous at first, later glabrescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, 7–8 mm. long, 4.5 mm. wide, smooth, with a chestnut-brown exotesta, and a dark grey-brown endotesta.
    Habitat
    Groundwater forest, by lakes, rivers and swamps; 1050–1280 m.
    Distribution
    K5 T1 U2 U4 from Nigeria eastwards to Sudan (Equatoria) and south to Angola and Zambia

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Macaranga schweinfurthii Pax appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2010 Cheek, M. [11994], Cameroon K000339404
    Andrews, F.W. [1472], Sudan 4165.000
    Zenker, G.A. [1515], Cameroon K000425801 Unknown type material

    Bibliography

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 92 (1894)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 7: 313.
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 935
    • in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 19: 92 (1894)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Troupin in Fl. Rwanda 2: 230 (1983).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 266 (1982)
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 200 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 208 (1961).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 407 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 85 (1952).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 133 (1952).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 89 (1921).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(7): 313 (1914).
    • Prain in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 935 (1912).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 19: 92 (1894).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0