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This species is accepted, and its native range is W. South America to Brazil.

[FWTA]

Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A shrub 6–10 ft. high, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Digitate leaves glaucous beneath
Morphology Roots
Tuberous roots
Note
Very variable in colour of bark, tint of foliage, etc. Cassava, a cultivated food-plant; native of Brazil. (See Appendix, p. 150.)

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Little-branched woody herb up to 5 m high; roots large, fusiform, starchy
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3–5(–7)-lobed, often not peltate, lobes oblanceolate, 6–14(–17) x 1–6 cm, tip acuminate, entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Raceme branched, 8–11 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flower: pedicel 5 mm long, decurved; calyx cylindric-conic in bud, tube 6 mm long, lobes 6 x 4 mm, greenish orange and crimson, sometimes dark-veined Female flower: pedicel 7 mm extending to 25 mm; sepals 10 x 5 mm; styles and stigmas looking like bunch of grapes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ellipsoidal to subglobose, 15–17 x 15 mm, rugulose, 6-winged, wings undulate-subcrenate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ± 5-sided, 11 x 5.5 x 3.5 mm, pale grey, sometimes mottled; caruncle 3 mm wide.
Distribution
Grown at least in central and southern Somalia; native of eastern tropical South America
Vernacular
Cassava (English); moxoggo (Somali).

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 50 - 1550 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
A large glabrous woody herb or subshrub up to 5 m. tall, rarely a tree 7–8 m. tall.
Morphology Roots
Root tubers up to 50 cm. long, very farinaceous.
Morphology General Bark
Bark smooth, often reddish.
Morphology General Shoots
Young shoots glaucous greenish grey.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves deeply palmatipartite, with 3–5(–7) lobes, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes slightly peltate, membranous-chartaceous, the lobes oblanceolate, occasionally lanceolate or obovate, 6–14(–17) cm. long, 1–6 cm. wide, acute, gradually acuminate, ± attenuate towards the base, entire, with up to 18 pairs of lateral nerves, midrib scarcely prominent above or beneath, dark green above, glaucous beneath; petiole (0–)5–13(–17) cm. long.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules triangular-lanceolate, 5 mm. long, setaceous-acuminate, ± entire, readily deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence paniculate, 8–11 cm. long; bracts resembling the stipules.
sex Male
Male flowers:pedicels patent-decurved, 5 mm. long, slender; calyx cylindric-conic in bud, campanulate, the lobes imbricate, triangular, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide at the base, subacute, glabrous without, sparingly pubescent within towards the apex, greenish, tinged orange and crimson and sometimes veined with purple, the tube 6 mm. long; long filaments 7 mm. long, short filaments 2.5 mm. long, slender, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm. long, with a tuft of hairs at the apex, pale yellow; disc 10-lobed, concave at the centre, the lobes acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers:pedicels somewhat decurved, 7 mm. long, extending to 2.5 cm. in fruit and thickening to 3 mm.; sepals imbricate, triangular-ovate, 1 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the margin; disc shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, 6-winged or -angled, pink; styles botryoidal, 2 mm. long. Male flowers:pedicels patent-decurved, 5 mm. long, slender; calyx cylindric-conic in bud, campanulate, the lobes imbricate, triangular, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide at the base, subacute, glabrous without, sparingly pubescent within towards the apex, greenish, tinged orange and crimson and sometimes veined with purple, the tube 6 mm. long; long filaments 7 mm. long, short filaments 2.5 mm. long, slender, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm. long, with a tuft of hairs at the apex, pale yellow; disc 10-lobed, concave at the centre, the lobes acute.
sex Female
Female flowers:pedicels somewhat decurved, 7 mm. long, extending to 2.5 cm. in fruit and thickening to 3 mm.; sepals imbricate, triangular-ovate, 1 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the margin; disc shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, 6-winged or -angled, pink; styles botryoidal, 2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid-subglobose, 1.5–1.7 cm. long, 1.5 cm. wide, rugulose, 6-winged, the wings undulate-subcrenate, endocarp woody.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ellipsoid, subpentagonal in section, 1.1 cm. long, 5.5 mm. wide, 3.5 mm. deep, pale grey, sometimes mottled, somewhat shiny, with a caruncle 3 mm. wide.
Figures
Fig. 68.
Distribution
widely cultivated for the tuberous roots which form a staple food (Cassava) in many areas in the tropics: native of E. Tropical South America K4 K7 T1 T3 T4 Z

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
A brittle-stemmed dichotomously branched shrub or small tree up to 5 m tall.
Morphology Roots
Root tubers up to 50 cm long, farinaceous.
Morphology General Bark
Bark smooth.
Morphology General Exudate
Latex whitish, watery.
Morphology General Shoots
Young shoots glaucous.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 4–25 cm long, often reddish.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf blades 6–25 cm across, deeply palmatipartite, 3–7-lobed, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes very slightly peltate with 1–2 mm width of lamina below the petiole-insertion; the lobes usually oblanceolate, the median 6.5–15 × 2–6 cm, gradually acutely acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, entire, sparingly pubescent near the midrib or subglabrous, dark green above, glaucous beneath; lateral nerves up to 20 pairs.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules 4–5 × 2 mm, triangular-lanceolate, soon falling.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence 2–11 cm long, paniculate; bracts resembling the stipules.
sex Male
Male flowers: pedicels 5 mm long, slender; buds 2 × 1 mm, cylindric-conic; calyx lobes 6 × 4 mm, triangular, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the apex, greenish, tinged orange or crimson and sometimes purple-veined; stamen filaments slender, the longer 7 mm long, the shorter 2.5 mm long, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm long, with an apical hair tuft, pale yellow; disk 10-lobed, concave, the lobes acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers; pedicels 7 mm long, extending to 2.5 cm and thickening to 3 mm in fruit, decurved; sepals 1× 0.5 cm, triangular-ovate, subacute; disk shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 × 2 mm, hexagonal, pink; styles 2 mm long, botryoidal. Male flowers: pedicels 5 mm long, slender; buds 2 × 1 mm, cylindric-conic; calyx lobes 6 × 4 mm, triangular, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the apex, greenish, tinged orange or crimson and sometimes purple-veined; stamen filaments slender, the longer 7 mm long, the shorter 2.5 mm long, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm long, with an apical hair tuft, pale yellow; disk 10-lobed, concave, the lobes acute.
sex Female
Female flowers; pedicels 7 mm long, extending to 2.5 cm and thickening to 3 mm in fruit, decurved; sepals 1× 0.5 cm, triangular-ovate, subacute; disk shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 × 2 mm, hexagonal, pink; styles 2 mm long, botryoidal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 1.3–1.7 × 1.3–1.5 cm, ellipsoid-subglobose, rugulose, 6-winged, the wings undulate-subcrenate, greenish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1.1 cm × 5.5 mm × 3.5 mm, ellipsoid, depressed-pentagonal, somewhat shiny, pale grey, sometimes mottled, caruncle 3 mm wide.

[FSOM]
Use
Widely cultivated for the edible roots which form a staple food in many tropical areas.

Native to:

Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Introduced into:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Burkina, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Leeward Is., Line Is., Madagascar, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nauru, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Society Is., Sudan, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zaïre

Manihot esculenta Crantz appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [4698], México State K000476810
Jan 1, 2008 Sasaki, D. [1881], Mato Grosso K000578353
Apr 1, 2002 Sebsebe [5061], Cameroon K000026470
Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1614], Cameroon K000026469
Apr 1, 2002 Cable, S. [3848], Cameroon K000026471
Jan 1, 1998 Alexiades, M.N. [1286], Peru K000716450
Jan 1, 1993 Thomas [5025], Brazil K000809115
Jan 1, 1992 Teixeira, L.O.A. [831], Brazil K000809117
Jan 1, 1990 Balée, W.L. [848], Brazil K000809116
Jan 1, 1988 Prance, G.T. [8456], Brazil K000809118
Pohl [1709], Brazil K000600387
Hinton, G.B. [7044], México State K000476812
Cardiel, J.M. [64], Bolivia K000716451
Cook, D.K. [149], Guyana K000809119
Hinton, G.B. [7044], México State K000476811
Schomburgk, R.H. [426/694R], Guyana K000600388 Unknown type material
Spruce, R. [825], Brazil K000600390 Unknown type material
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K000600389
Hinton, G.B. [4698], México State K000476809
[Pohl] [1709], Brazil K000600386

First published in Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 167 (1766)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 3: 1-634. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
  • Stinca, A., D'Auria, G. & Motti, R. (2014). Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae), a new alien species in Italy Hacquetia 13: 355-357.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 167 (1766).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 3: 1-634. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
  • Stinca, A., D'Auria, G. & Motti, R. (2014). Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae), a new alien species in Italy Hacquetia 13: 355-357.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. G. Gilbert [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb., 1: 167 (1766).
  • D. Rogers & Appan, Fl. Neotrop., Monogr. 13: 25 (1973).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 86 (1952).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 201 (1962).
  • J. Léonard, Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 8(1): 121 (1962).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 219 (1949).
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 413 (1958).
  • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 2: 232, t. 70., fig. 2 (1983).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/