1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Manihot Mill.
      1. Manihot esculenta Crantz

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. South America to Brazil.

    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A shrub 6–10 ft. high, glabrous
    Leaves
    Digitate leaves glaucous beneath
    Roots
    Tuberous roots
    Note
    Very variable in colour of bark, tint of foliage, etc. Cassava, a cultivated food-plant; native of Brazil. (See Appendix, p. 150.)
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A large glabrous woody herb or subshrub up to 5 m. tall, rarely a tree 7–8 m. tall.
    Roots
    Root tubers up to 50 cm. long, very farinaceous.
    Bark
    Bark smooth, often reddish.
    Shoots
    Young shoots glaucous greenish grey.
    Leaves
    Leaves deeply palmatipartite, with 3–5(–7) lobes, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes slightly peltate, membranous-chartaceous, the lobes oblanceolate, occasionally lanceolate or obovate, 6–14(–17) cm. long, 1–6 cm. wide, acute, gradually acuminate, ± attenuate towards the base, entire, with up to 18 pairs of lateral nerves, midrib scarcely prominent above or beneath, dark green above, glaucous beneath; petiole (0–)5–13(–17) cm. long.
    Stipules
    Stipules triangular-lanceolate, 5 mm. long, setaceous-acuminate, ± entire, readily deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence paniculate, 8–11 cm. long; bracts resembling the stipules.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels patent-decurved, 5 mm. long, slender; calyx cylindric-conic in bud, campanulate, the lobes imbricate, triangular, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide at the base, subacute, glabrous without, sparingly pubescent within towards the apex, greenish, tinged orange and crimson and sometimes veined with purple, the tube 6 mm. long; long filaments 7 mm. long, short filaments 2.5 mm. long, slender, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm. long, with a tuft of hairs at the apex, pale yellow; disc 10-lobed, concave at the centre, the lobes acute.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels somewhat decurved, 7 mm. long, extending to 2.5 cm. in fruit and thickening to 3 mm.; sepals imbricate, triangular-ovate, 1 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the margin; disc shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, 6-winged or -angled, pink; styles botryoidal, 2 mm. long. Male flowers:pedicels patent-decurved, 5 mm. long, slender; calyx cylindric-conic in bud, campanulate, the lobes imbricate, triangular, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide at the base, subacute, glabrous without, sparingly pubescent within towards the apex, greenish, tinged orange and crimson and sometimes veined with purple, the tube 6 mm. long; long filaments 7 mm. long, short filaments 2.5 mm. long, slender, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm. long, with a tuft of hairs at the apex, pale yellow; disc 10-lobed, concave at the centre, the lobes acute.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels somewhat decurved, 7 mm. long, extending to 2.5 cm. in fruit and thickening to 3 mm.; sepals imbricate, triangular-ovate, 1 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the margin; disc shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, 6-winged or -angled, pink; styles botryoidal, 2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit ellipsoid-subglobose, 1.5–1.7 cm. long, 1.5 cm. wide, rugulose, 6-winged, the wings undulate-subcrenate, endocarp woody.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, subpentagonal in section, 1.1 cm. long, 5.5 mm. wide, 3.5 mm. deep, pale grey, sometimes mottled, somewhat shiny, with a caruncle 3 mm. wide.
    Figures
    Fig. 68.
    Distribution
    widely cultivated for the tuberous roots which form a staple food (Cassava) in many areas in the tropics: native of E. Tropical South America K4 K7 T1 T3 T4 Z
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A brittle-stemmed dichotomously branched shrub or small tree up to 5 m tall.
    Roots
    Root tubers up to 50 cm long, farinaceous.
    Bark
    Bark smooth.
    Exudate
    Latex whitish, watery.
    Shoots
    Young shoots glaucous.
    Petiole
    Petiole 4–25 cm long, often reddish.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 6–25 cm across, deeply palmatipartite, 3–7-lobed, rarely simple, shallowly cordate, sometimes very slightly peltate with 1–2 mm width of lamina below the petiole-insertion; the lobes usually oblanceolate, the median 6.5–15 × 2–6 cm, gradually acutely acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, entire, sparingly pubescent near the midrib or subglabrous, dark green above, glaucous beneath; lateral nerves up to 20 pairs.
    Stipules
    Stipules 4–5 × 2 mm, triangular-lanceolate, soon falling.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 2–11 cm long, paniculate; bracts resembling the stipules.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 5 mm long, slender; buds 2 × 1 mm, cylindric-conic; calyx lobes 6 × 4 mm, triangular, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the apex, greenish, tinged orange or crimson and sometimes purple-veined; stamen filaments slender, the longer 7 mm long, the shorter 2.5 mm long, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm long, with an apical hair tuft, pale yellow; disk 10-lobed, concave, the lobes acute.
    Flowers
    Female flowers; pedicels 7 mm long, extending to 2.5 cm and thickening to 3 mm in fruit, decurved; sepals 1× 0.5 cm, triangular-ovate, subacute; disk shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 × 2 mm, hexagonal, pink; styles 2 mm long, botryoidal. Male flowers: pedicels 5 mm long, slender; buds 2 × 1 mm, cylindric-conic; calyx lobes 6 × 4 mm, triangular, subacute, glabrous without, pubescent within near the apex, greenish, tinged orange or crimson and sometimes purple-veined; stamen filaments slender, the longer 7 mm long, the shorter 2.5 mm long, glabrous, white, anthers 1.5 mm long, with an apical hair tuft, pale yellow; disk 10-lobed, concave, the lobes acute.
    Female
    Female flowers; pedicels 7 mm long, extending to 2.5 cm and thickening to 3 mm in fruit, decurved; sepals 1× 0.5 cm, triangular-ovate, subacute; disk shallowly 5-lobed; ovary 2 × 2 mm, hexagonal, pink; styles 2 mm long, botryoidal.
    Fruits
    Fruit 1.3–1.7 × 1.3–1.5 cm, ellipsoid-subglobose, rugulose, 6-winged, the wings undulate-subcrenate, greenish.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.1 cm × 5.5 mm × 3.5 mm, ellipsoid, depressed-pentagonal, somewhat shiny, pale grey, sometimes mottled, caruncle 3 mm wide.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Burkina, Cambodia, Central African Repu, Chad, Christmas I., Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Leeward Is., Line Is., Marianas, Marquesas, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nauru, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Society Is., Sudan, Sulawesi, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zaïre

    Manihot esculenta Crantz appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [4698], México State K000476810
    Jan 1, 2008 Sasaki, D. [1881], Mato Grosso K000578353
    Apr 1, 2002 Cable, S. [3848], Cameroon K000026471
    Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1614], Cameroon K000026469
    Apr 1, 2002 Sebsebe [5061], Cameroon K000026470
    Jan 1, 1998 Alexiades, M.N. [1286], Peru K000716450
    Jan 1, 1993 Thomas [5025], Brazil K000809115
    Jan 1, 1992 Teixeira, L.O.A. [831], Brazil K000809117
    Jan 1, 1990 Balée, W.L. [848], Brazil K000809116
    Jan 1, 1988 Prance, G.T. [8456], Brazil K000809118
    Hinton, G.B. [4698], México State K000476809
    Hinton, G.B. [7044], México State K000476811
    Hinton, G.B. [7044], México State K000476812
    Cardiel, J.M. [64], Bolivia K000716451
    Pohl [1709], Brazil K000600387
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K000600389
    Spruce, R. [825], Brazil K000600390 Unknown type material
    Schomburgk, R.H. [426/694R], Guyana K000600388 Unknown type material
    [Pohl] [1709], Brazil K000600386
    Cook, D.K. [149], Guyana K000809119

    First published in Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 167 (1766)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stinca, A., D'Auria, G. & Motti, R. (2014). Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae), a new alien species in Italy Hacquetia 13: 355-357.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vasular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 3: 1-634. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 167 (1766).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stinca, A., D'Auria, G. & Motti, R. (2014). Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae), a new alien species in Italy Hacquetia 13: 355-357.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vasular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 3: 1-634. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 2: 232, t. 70., fig. 2 (1983).
    • D. Rogers & Appan, Fl. Neotrop., Monogr. 13: 25 (1973).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 201 (1962).
    • J. Léonard, Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 8(1): 121 (1962).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 413 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 86 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 219 (1949).
    • Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb., 1: 167 (1766).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/